Biology Of Honey Bees

All members of the genus Apis are eusocial, which means truly social. To entomologists this term indicates that there is cooperative care of the young by individuals of the same species, an overlap in generations, and production of a sterile or nonreproducing worker caste. This type of social development is uncommon considering that there are over 1 million named insect species. Living as a colony, eusocial species like honey bees provide more food and protection for themselves and their young than can any solitary individual. It is because honey bees store food for future needs that humans have been able to exploit them.

Scientists subdivide the wide-ranging species A. mellifera and A. cerana into a number of races (4). These races differ in behavioral and physical characteristics that are the result of adaptations of the species over time, following isolation in geographical regions. In fact, such races are sometimes called geographic races. In A. mellifera some races can be physically distinguished only through the use of computer-assisted morphometric (body measurement) analysis, lb describe honey bee races, specialists use a trinomial system of nomenclature as opposed to the traditional binomial. For example, the Italian honey bee race's

4. B. N. Lee, "Bamboo Shoot," Farmers Guide. Harvest Farm Magazine Ltd., Taipei, Taiwan, 1980 pp. 885-888.

5. G. M. Leu, "Disappearing of Bamboos" Harvest 35, 16-17 (June 28, 1985).

6. G. A. C. Herklots, Vegetables in South-East Asia, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., London, 1972.

7. M. T. Chang, "Cultivation of Bamboo Shoot," Harvest 36,4245 (Aug. 1, 1986).

8. M. L. Liao et al., "Respiration Measurement of Some Fruits and Vegetables of Taiwan," FIRDI Technical Report E-66, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 1982.

9. T. R. Yen et al., "Quality Improvement of Canned Bamboo Shoot," FIRDI Technical Report 237, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 1982.

10. R. Y. Chen et al., "Postharvest Handling and Storage of Bamboo Shoots," Acta Horticulture 258:309-316,1989.

11. R. Y. Chen et al., "Control of Postharvest Quality of Bamboo Shoot," FIRDI Technical Report 423, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 1986.

12. G. T. Huang et al., "Improvement on the Quality of Dried Fermented Bamboo Shoots," FIRDI Technical Report E-121, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 1985.

13. FIRDI, "Table of Taiwan Food Composition," FIRDI Technical Report 24, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 1971.

Ming-Sai Liu

Food Industry Research and Development Institute

Hsinchu, Taiwan

BANANAS. See Fruits, tropical.

BARLEY. See Cereals science and technology.

How To Become A Bee Keeping Pro

How To Become A Bee Keeping Pro

Companies that have beekeeping stuff deal with all the equipment that is required for this business, like attire for bee keeping which is essential from head to torso, full body suits and just head gear. Along with this equipment they also sell journals and books on beekeeping to help people to understand this field better. Some of the better known beekeeping companies have been in the business for more than a hundred years.

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