Butter And Margarines

Butter contains at least 80 wt% butterfat (46), which serves as the matrix sponge for the aqueous phase. The aqueous phase consists of water, casein, milk solids, and minerals. The solids comprise about 1 to 2 wt% of the butter, and salt may typically be added at concentrations from 1.5 to 3 wt%. Margarines are butter replacements made from shortening or shortening and oil blends with other ingredients to match butter's aqueous phase. Coloring, flavoring, and vitamins A and D may also be added. Margarine must contain 80% fat by federal regulation (47). Margarines are available in solid form, whipped, and as pourable liquids. They are also available in reduced-calorie, diet, or imitation spreads, which have a lower fat content.

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