Cancer

Cancer is a disease condition characterized by excessive growth of cells due to abnormal multiplication and replication. The biological process shows several experimentally distinct phases following exposure to a carcinogen. These include: initiation, tumor promotion, and tumor progression (29). After CVD, cancer is the next highest cause of death in the United States. Many adverse effects that occur in patients are due, not only to the cancer itself, but also to the treatment. Loss of appetite (anorexia) is the most common side effect. When advanced and persistent, this along with other metabolic and physiologic changes can eventually lead to severe undernutrition termed cancer cachexia.

Anorexia is not unique to cancer; however, it is persistent and severe in certain cancers such as the carcinoma of the stomach, breast, and large bowel. Onset of anorexia is insidious and may not be accompanied by any obvious manifestations other than progressive weight loss. Energy expenditure is high in cancer patients (29) while glucose intolerance is found frequently and may be due to the increased insulin resistance or inadequate insulin release. Abnormalities also occur in fat metabolism and include excess body fat depletion, protein loss, increased lipolysis, changes in free fatty acid and glycerol turnover, as well as decreased lipogenesis. Abnormalities in protein metabolism include increased whole body protein turnover, increased hepatic protein synthesis, persistent muscle protein breakdown, and decreased levels of plasma branched-chain amino acids. Malabsorption as well as protein loss through the gastrointestinal tract may also occur.

Breaking Bulimia

Breaking Bulimia

We have all been there: turning to the refrigerator if feeling lonely or bored or indulging in seconds or thirds if strained. But if you suffer from bulimia, the from time to time urge to overeat is more like an obsession.

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