Catching Methods

American lobsters (H. americanus), European lobsters (H. gammarus), and spiny lobsters (P. argus) are primarily caught by traps (also called pots or creels) (14-17), but trawling of lobsters is legal in U.S. waters, except for in Maine (18). The recently observed practice of displaced New England cod fishermen turning to trawling for lobster is causing a great concern for the future state of the lobster resource (18,19). Some spiny lobsters are also caught by trawl or by diving (13). Norway lobsters (AT. norvegicus) are primarily caught by trawl (20).

Traditionally, in both Europe and North America, half-round (semicylindrical) traps, made with wooden laths, were the common type of lobster traps used (15,17,21,22). Regardless of its shape, each trap contains one or more funneled entrances made of wood or netting (21,22), with the spacing of the laths set to allow undersized lobsters to escape (23). Because European lobstermen have learned that the traditional North American parlor pot is much more productive than their traditional single-chamber pots, they have introduced parlor pots into the European lobster fishery (13,24); some of these parlor pots are extremely large and made of galvanized metal (25). Similarly, in addition to the traditional wooden traps, metal traps are now also used by North American lobstermen (15,26).

A lobster trap made of wood with synthetic twine, metal and wire, or plastic does not biodegrade after the trap becomes lost on the fishing grounds. Therefore, these traps ghost fish much longer than the conventional wooden lob-

42. V. W. Hays and R. L. Preston, "Nutrition and Feeding Management to Alter Carcass Composition of Pigs and Cattle," in H. D. Hafs and R. G. Zimbelman, eds., Low-Fat Meats Design Strategies and Human Implications, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif., 1994, pp. 13-33.

43. R. L. Preston, "Livestock Technologies," in B. C. English, R. L. White, and L. H. Chuang, eds., Crop and Livestock Technologies, RCA III Symposium, Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, 1997, pp. 115-126.

44. B. K. Symonds and J. Orendorff, "Agriculture to be Changed by Emerging Biotechnology Age," Feedstuffs 70,12-18 (1998).

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