Cc

Figure 5. Particle size distribution for unhomogenized and homogenized milk.

Figure 5. Particle size distribution for unhomogenized and homogenized milk.

4.22 because of homogenization. For milk, the increased surface area means that the original milk fat globule membrane is insufficient to cover the newly formed fat surfaces, and plasma proteins are adsorbed from the milk serum to compensate for this extended surface area (21).

Figure 6 shows typical globule size reduction for milk homogenized with a standard homogenizing valve (curve 1) and a Micro-Gap® homogenizing valve (curve 2) illustrating the reduction in fat globule size with increasing homogenizing pressure.

Table 1 lists some common applications of the homog-enizer. The pressure ranges given are for conventional homogenizing valves, but the actual pressures can vary depending on the product formulation, the required shelf life, and the product specifications of each processor. Also, some of these applications might require more than one pass through the homogenizer or the use of a two-stage homogenizing valve. When using the two-stage valve, it has been determined that the second stage pressure should be in the range of 10 to 15% of the total homogenizing pressure (12,19). The second stage valve eliminates cavitation in the first stage valve. This improves homogenization efficiency for an emulsion while maintaining the same total homog-

Figure 6. Mean fat globule diameter versus homogenizing pressure. Curve 1 is typical for a standard homogenizing valve at 23,000 liters per hour. Curve 2 is typical for a Micro-Gap® homogenizing valve at all flow rates. Mean diameters are measured using the spectroturbidity method. Source: Data from APV Americas-Homogenizers.

6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0 22.0 Homogenizing pressure (MPa)

Figure 6. Mean fat globule diameter versus homogenizing pressure. Curve 1 is typical for a standard homogenizing valve at 23,000 liters per hour. Curve 2 is typical for a Micro-Gap® homogenizing valve at all flow rates. Mean diameters are measured using the spectroturbidity method. Source: Data from APV Americas-Homogenizers.

Table 1. Common Applications of the Homogenizer
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