Cheese And Cultured Products

Cheese and cultured milk products generally are consumed in their native form, but they also can provide a nutritionally valuable ingredient resource with especially useful flavor and compositional characteristics that are well regarded by consumers (48). The cheesemaker can provide a graduated series of flavor, texture, and compositional properties to suit a variety of needs. Consequently cheese types vary widely, as shown in Figure 4.

Natural cheeses are manufactured by controlled fermentation, which influences both acidity and flavor, and which in combination with controlled composition, influences texture (49). Texture control extends from gels, through spreadable pastes, to firmly structured semisolids. Processed cheese, which is made by melting the natural cheese and then dissolving the protein so that a new emulsion is established, extends the range of textural properties and forms of presentation that can be offered.

High-melt properties that can provide intact cheese pieces in, eg, heated sausages have been achieved. Stretch properties as may be required for pizza, and melt charac-

Table 4. Milk Protein

Product class

Performance requirement of food formulation

Process of manufacture


Coprecipitate Isolates

Casein-acid Casein-rennet

Whey protein Lactalbumin

WPCa low protein level WPC°, high protein level Isolates

Casemates Sodium




Whey proteins, WPCa


Whole proteins Balanced amino acid profile

Strong functional performance


Broad functional performance, bland, nutritionally strong Nutritionally strong, including bioavailable calcium, stable bland flavor, stretch properties for analogue cheese

Amino acid balance complementary to vegetable proteins No interfering function Milk powder alternative at economical price

Soluble, bland, heat setting Pure proteins

Compounding Specific functional performance


Solubility, natural emulsification, foam, fat binding, water holding Bland flavor

Colloidal protein, viscosity control Soluble and functional with low sodium Special performance (e.g., high foam, low viscosity, gelation) Special performance (e.g., strong gels, heat stability) Nutritional performance, reduced allergenicity

Precipitated under managed conditions of 38

heat, acid, and calcium concentration pH shifts and isoelectric precipitation 34,35

Isoelectric precipitation, multiple 33,36

washing procedure

Enzymic precipitation and multiple 39 washing

Heat precipitation and spray dried or ring 40 dried

Ultrafiltration to around 35% protein content

Ultrafilter and diafilter to around 75% 41

protein content

Ionic adsorption 42

Introduce vegetable proteins in blends or 43 by interreaction

Treat with sodium alkali and spray dry 36,44 Carbon asorption

Treat with calcium alkali and spray dry 45 Treat with potassium alkali

Various proprietary procedures 46

Various proprietary procedures 47

Enzymic modification 4

"WPC, whey protein concentrate.

Cheese -

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