CI o

Chloramine-T

Chloramine-T

Isocyanuric acid derivatives

Chloramines have 25-30% available chlorine, but they are weaker bactericides than hypochlorites except that they are more active at pH > 10. Isocyanuric acid products are active over the pH range 6-10. Both of these organic chlorines can be formulated as detergent-sanitizers, but they are relatively expensive (1).

Chlorine dioxide is another form of chlorine that has antimicrobial properties. It is considered to have the same antimicrobial activity as hypochlorite. Principal advantages are that it is not as readily inactivated by organics as hypochlorite, and it retains activity at higher pH values than does hypochlorite. Additionally, chlorine dioxide does not react with ammonia, it can break down phenolics to remove phenolic tastes and odors from water, and it does not form trihalomethanes with nitrogenous organic components of water. Because chlorine dioxide is highly reactive, it cannot be produced and shipped in bulk. Therefore, it is generated at the site of use, usually by combining separate solutions of chlorine and sodium chlorite at carefully controlled reaction conditions. Chlorine dioxide deca-hydrate can be prepared as a commercial product, but it must be refrigerated because it decomposes with rising temperatures. Under certain conditions it can be explosive. Chlorine dioxide, although it is more expensive than hypochlorite, has been used for treatment of water supplies, in plant chlorination of wastewater treatment, and chlo-rination of recycled or recirculated waters where slime buildup may occur (5).

Iodine is too insoluble in water to be used as a disinfectant; however, if it is complexed with a nonionic surface

Table 1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Classes of Sanitizers

Hypochlorite

Iodophor

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