Co Co




5 Ie

44 c


All Panelists6


4 gd



"Based on a nine-point hedonic scale: 1 = dislike extremely; 9 = like extremely.

'Means in the same row sharing the same letter c, d, e, are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

"Based on a nine-point hedonic scale: 1 = dislike extremely; 9 = like extremely.

'Means in the same row sharing the same letter c, d, e, are not significantly different at the 95% confidence level.

the smallest amounts of limonin, but not inferior to the products with 9.2 or 8.8 /¿g/mL. There was no significant difference between the four products having the lowest limonin levels.

Significant flavor differences existed between users and nonusers for every product, the users in each case rating the product higher. Within the nonuser group there was a steady downward trend in flavor scores with increasing limonin concentration. Significant differences existed between the products having the lowest and highest limonin levels, with no significant difference noted between the products having from 7.1 to 9.2 /¿g/mL limonin. Among users, the highest rated product (7.2 flavor score) was the sample with the second lowest limonin levels (7.1 /¿g/mL). The only significant difference in flavor scores among users was between this highest rated product having 7.1 /¿g/mL limonin and the product having the most limonin (11.0 fig! mL) and the lowest score (6.91).

The data in Table 1 also show the panelists' preference measurements. For all panelists the sample with the least limonin (2.3 /¿g/mL) was significantly preferred over samples having 7.1, 9.2, and 11.0 /¿g/mL, but not the sample with 8.8 /¿g/mL limonin. The sample with the most limonin (11.0 /¿g/mL) was significantly least preferred of all.

When preference measurements by users were compared with those by nonusers, there was no difference in their preference for each product. Within the nonuser group the most highly preferred product had the least limonin and was significantly preferred to the products having the two highest limonin levels. The least preferred product had the highest limonin level and had only a 32% preference, 45% less than the most preferred product (Table 1). Among users, the product with the highest amount of limonin was again rated significantly lower than all other products. No significant difference in preference was noted among users between the samples having the lowest limonin contents. Apparently, a clear-cut consensus existed among both users and nonusers of grapefruit juice that grapefruit juice having —11.0 /¿g/mL limonin (HPLC) was less preferred to grapefruit juice containing less limonin.

For those specific attributes of sweetness, tartness, and bitterness that were also rated (Table 2), there was a general tendency for the level of sweetness perceived by consumers to decrease with increasing limonin concentration in the juice. Simultaneously, the perception of tartness and bitterness intensity increased with increasing limonin content. Because the only differences between the five samples was limonin content, bitterness was perceived as tartness or reduced sweetness to a measurable degree, a phenomenon also noted in a study described earlier (40). All five samples were judged by consumers as being somewhat not sweet enough and somewhat too bitter and tart.

Correlation analysis revealed a significant negative correlation (r = —0.973; P < 0.01) between overall flavor score and limonin level. Differences in limonin levels explained over 94% of the variation in flavor. In addition, overall flavor score correlated significantly with two of the quality attributes judged by the consumers: directly with sweetness (r = 0.852; P < 0.01) and negatively with bitterness (r = -0.962; P < 0.01). Tartness did not quite make the 95% confidence level.

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