Three configurations of MVS are available, depending on environment and requirements. Stand-alone systems are well suited for factory automation. They use application specific integrated circuits (AISCs) that deliver accelerated processing power. They are compatible with other factory automation devices [programmatic language controllers (PLCs), photoelectric sensors, and radio frequency identification (RF/ID) systems] and withstand adverse environments (temperature, vibration, electrical interference). The second type are PC-based systems, which consist of a computer and a motherboard or CPU with dedicated-vision ASICs. These are lower in price than stand-alone systems and take advantage of microprocessor technology, but they are not as resistant to environmental and other pressures as stand-alone systems. The third type are VME systems, which are robust yet flexible. The VME is an Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) bus standard, where system components are connected via pin-and-socket connections to the bus. These systems are more complex and costly than the others (23).
Machine vision systems can be classified into eight categories. Each has advantages and disadvantages (Table 1) and can be suitable to a particular operation. Turnkey
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