Corn

Dry and Wet Milling

Corn (Zea mays L.) is processed to provide food ingredients, industrial products, feeds, alcoholic beverages, and fuel ethanol. Wet millers produce starch; modified starch products, including dextrose and syrups (by starch hydrolysis); feed products; and oil (10). Dry millers produce hull, germ, and endosperm fractions that vary in particle size and fat content. Endosperm products—grits, meal, and flour—are the primary products used by the food processors and in consumer markets (11).

Corn germ flour prepared from a commercial dry-milled fraction appears to be a promising fortifying ingredient for the food industry (12). Protein concentrates from normal and high-lysine corns (13) and from defatted dry-milled corn germ (14) are obtained by alkaline extraction of corn or corn germ and then precipitating the extracted proteins with acid.

Nutrient Composition of Corn Products

Typical yields and analyses of dry-milled products from corn have been published (11,15). About 95% of the corn produced in the United States in 1996 was yellow dent. Specialty corns such as white, waxy, hard endosperm/food grade, high-oil, high-lysine, and high-amylose are also commercially available. High-oil corn, which has about 7% oil compared with about 4.5% oil for dent corn, is the fastest growing market product among all corns in the United

Table 3. Average Percentage Composition of Dry-Milled Hard Wheat Products (As-is)

Constituent, %

Wheat

Farina

Patent flour

First clear flour

Second clear flour

Germ

Shorts

Bran

Moisture

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