Dairy Ingredients For Foods

Milk and its products have been consumed by many generations of people of Western, Middle Eastern, Indian, and some African cultures. The nutritional value of dairy materials, properly handled, has been proven by widespread use, and their safety is assured by processing procedures that have been introduced and refined since the time of Pasteur. The great bulk of dairy products today recognize traditions of simple processes and physical separations, avoiding chemicals and thereby preserving the natural properties and the very desirable connotations of traditional products.

The more recently developed food-processing industries have generated requirements for sophisticated performance of dairy materials as ingredients for both familiar and fabricated foods. Milk production does not require the use of pesticides and hormones. Well-managed herds can produce milk with contaminant levels far below the requirements of regulatory authorities. Active components that directly inhibit the processes of digestion, metabolism, and assimilation of nutrients are not present in milk.

The nature of milk and its components is probably better characterized than the properties of any other basic food. Consequently, the ability to transform milk and its individual components into appropriate food ingredients is extensive, as demonstrated by Figure 1.

S. Cunningham, "Marketing of Dairy Ingredients. Part 1," World of Ingredients Jan/Feb., 22-23, 25, 27 (1995).

S. Cunningham, "Marketing of Dairy Ingredients. Part II," World of Ingredients March/April, 38-41 (1995).

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J. B. German and C. J. Dillard, "Fractionated Milk Fat: Composition, Structure, and Functional Properties," Food Technol. 52, 33-34, 36-38 (1998).

T. P. Guinee and M. O. Corcoran, "Expanded Use of Cheese in Processed Meat Products," Farm & Food 4, 25-28 (1994).

A. Hendrickx, "New Protein Additive for Meat and Poultry Products: Milk-Based Functional Protein Product," Fleischerei 43, 880, 883-884 (1992).

C. K. Hsu and E. Kolbe, "The Market Potential of Whey Concentrate as a Functional Ingredient in Surimi Seafoods," Journal of Dairy Science 79, 2146-2151 (1996).

L. King, "Whey Protein Concentrates as Ingredients," Food Technology Europe 3, 88-89 (1996).

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H. A. M. Lemmers, "The Use of Dairy Ingredients in Further Processed Poultry Products," Fleischerei 42, III-VI (1991).

P. H. Lyons et al., "The Influence of Whey Protein/Carrageenan Gels and Tapioca Starch on the Textural Properties of Low Fat Pork," Meat Science 51, 43-52 (1999).

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K. Piyachomkwan and M. H. Penner, "Inhibition of Pacific Whiting Surimi-Associated Protease by Whey Protein Concentrate," J. Food Prot. 18, 341-353 (1995).

C. Ramesh, Dairy-Based Ingredients, Eagan Press, Minn., 1997.

D. M. Smith and A. J. Rose, "Properties of Chicken Salt-Soluble Protein and Whey Protein Concentrate Gels as Influenced by Sodium Tripolyphosphate," Poultry Science 74, 169-175 (1995).

S. Solberg, "Effective Product Development for Sausages," Liv-smedelsteknik 38, 42-43 (1996).

H. Y. Tan and D. M. Smith, "Dynamic Rheological Properties and Microstructure of Partially Insolubilized Whey Protein Concentrate and Chicken Breast Salt-Soluble Protein Gels," J. Agric. Food Chem. 41,1372-1378 (1993).

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P. Walkenstrom and A. M. Hermansson, "Fine-Stranded Mixed Gels of Whey Proteins and Gelatin," Food Hydrocolloids 10, 51-62 (1996).

P. Walkenstrom and A. M. Hermansson, "High-Pressure Treated Mixed Gels of Gelatin and Whey Proteins," Food Hydrocolloids 11, 195-208 (1997).

P. Walkenstrom and A. M. Hermansson, "Mixed Gels of Gelatin and Whey Proteins, Formed by Combining Temperature and High Pressure," Food Hydrocolloids 11, 457-470 (1997).

V. C. Weerasinghe et al., "Whey Protein Concentrate as a Proteinase Inhibitor in Pacific Whiting Surimi," J. Food Sei. 61, 367371 (1996).

J. N. de Wit, "Nutritional and Functional Characteristics of Whey Proteins in Food Products," Journal of Dairy Science 81, 597608 (1998).

O. Zorba et al., "The Possibility of Using Fluid Whey in Comminuted Meat Products: Capacity and Viscosity of the Model Emulsions Prepared Using Whey and Muscle Protein," Z. Lebensm.-Unters. Forsch. 200, 425-427 (1995).

Martien van den Hoven Creamy Creations Rijkevoort, The Netherlands

See also Dairy ingredients for foods; Whey:

composition, properties, processing, and uses.

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Vegetarian Food and Cooking

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