Definition And History Of Usage

Extrusion is a process that combines several unit operations that include mixing, kneading, shearing, heating, cooling, shaping, and forming. This process also involves compressing and working a material to form a semisolid mass under a variety of controlled conditions, and then forcing it to pass through a restricted opening such as a shaped hole or slot at a predetermined rate (1). The first known record of extrusion was in 1797 when Joseph Bra-mah used a piston-driven device to manufacture seamless lead pipes (2). This innovation was adapted later by the food industry for the production of macaroni products. The first twin-screw extruder was developed in 1869 by Follows and Bates for sausage manufacture (2). A single-screw extruder, with shallow flights and rotating in a stationary cylindrical barrel, was developed for the Phoenix Gummiwerke A.G. in 1873 (3).

In the mid-1930s, forming extruders were used to mix semolina flour and water to form pasta products. A few years later, extrusion technology that combined transport, mixing, and shaping operations was used to produce the first ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from precooked oat-flour dough (4). In the late 1930s, Robert Colombo and Carlo Pasquetti developed a corotating and intermeshing twin-screw extruder for mixing cellulose without the use of a solvent (5). In the middle of the 1940s, the first extrusion-cooked, expanded food products, corn snacks, were commercially produced using single-screw extruders (6). Dry expanded pet food, dry expanded ready-to-eat breakfast cereals, and textured vegetable protein, produced by singlescrew extruders, were introduced in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, respectively (4,6). In the early 1970s, Creusot-Loire had developed the twin-screw plastics extruder for food applications. Finally, the 1980s have brought rapid commercialization of the production of feeds for aquatic species using the process of extrusion (6).

Sleeping Sanctuary

Sleeping Sanctuary

Salvation For The Sleep Deprived The Ultimate Guide To Sleeping, Napping, Resting And  Restoring Your Energy. Of the many things that we do just instinctively and do not give much  of a thought to, sleep is probably the most prominent one. Most of us sleep only because we have to. We sleep because we cannot stay awake all 24 hours in the day.

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