Dispersion Forces

Dispersion forces occur between any pair of atoms. Each atom behaves like an oscillating dipole generated by electrons moving in relation to the nucleus of the atom. In a pair of atoms, the dipole in an atom polarizes the opposing atom. As a result, the oscillators are coupled, giving rise to an attractive force between the atoms. The theory of the attractive interaction between atoms is attributed to London (34), and such forces are often called London forces, or dispersion forces. They are long-range forces, arising from attractive forces between atoms over an extended distance.

It was shown by London, following the appearance of quantum theory, that this relationship is also applicable to the dispersion energy between two nonpolar molecules due to polarization of the electron density in one molecule by charge fluctuation in the other. Except in highly polar materials, it is the sum of London dispersion forces that contributes most to the total van der Waals attraction between macroscopic bodies.

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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