For several amino acids (cystine, tyrosine, leucine), isolation from natural raw materials is still an economical pro-

Table 9. Production of Amino Acids (ton/year, 1997)

Amino acid Method World d,l-Alanine C 1,500

l-Alanine Enz 500

l-Arginine Enz, F 1,200

l-Aspartic acid Enz 7,000

l-Aspargine Enz 1,200

L-Citrulline Enz l-Cysteine Ext, Enz 1,500

l-Cystine Ext, Enz

Glycine C 22,000

l-Glutamic acid F 1,000,000

l-Glutamine F 1,300

l-Histidine F 400

l-Isoleucine F 400

l-Leucine Ext, F 500

L-Lysine hydrochloride F 250,000

d,l-Methionine C 350,000

l-Methionine Enz 300

l-Ornithine F

l-Phenylalanine C, F, Enz 8,000

L-Proline F 350

l-Serine F 200

l-Threonine C, F 4,000

l-Tryptophan C, Enz, F 500

l-Tyrosine Ext, F 120

l-Valine C, F 500

Note: F, fermentation method; C, chemical method, Enz, enzymatic method, Ext, extraction method.

duction method. The procedure for isolating an amino acid from a protein hydrolyzate consists of passing the hydrol-yzate over an ion exchange resin. After elution with aqueous ammonia, aminoacids are collected in fractions.

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