Fats And Oils Functionality

Fats and oils provide several functional characteristics in a variety of food products. Shortening products can provide lubricity, structure, a heat-transfer medium, a moisture barrier, and aeration. Fat systems can also act as a carrier for flavor, color, and vitamins. Oils themselves provide vital nutrition.

Table 4. Additives Used in Fats and Oils




Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA)

Butylated hydroxytoluene

(BHT) tert-Butylhydroquinone

(TBHQ) Propyl gallate yS-carotene

Tumeric and annatto


Retard oxidation


Provides yellow color to finished product.


Various acids, aldehydes, and ketones Phosphoric acid Citric acid

Dimethylpolysiloxane (methyl silicone) Polyglycerol esters Oxystearin

Provide flavor and odor to the finished product Metal chelators, process hydrating agents, neutralizing agents. Antifoaming agent, high-

temperature antioxidant Crystal inhibitors, crystal modification


Monoglycerides, diglycerides Lecithin

Polyglycerol esters Calcium/sodium steroyl lactylate Lactylated monoglycerides and diglycerides Sorbitan esters Propylene glycol esters

Emulsification, aeration, dough conditioning, wetting, antispattering, antisticking, separation and viscosity control

Fat is multifunctional in most applications. Frying and cooking fats provide lubricity, a heat-transfer medium, and a flavor medium in some applications. Fats provide lubricity and aeration in cakes and additionally structure in icings, cream fillers, and the like.

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