Fermented Cereal Foods Bread

According to many people of the world, bread is the staff of life. Bread is only one type of fermented cereal product.

Other products include rolls, Danish pastry, crackers, doughnuts, pretzels, and so on. Bread and bakery products are a multibillion dollar business in the United States, the majority of which is bread. The definition of a bread is a product of moistened, kneaded, fermented, and baked meal of flour (mainly from wheat) with appropriate added ingredients. Yeast (S. cerevisiae) is the organism to facilitate the fermentation process to make bread. Yeast can be supplied to the baking industry in a compressed, bulk, or active dried yeast form. Bread is made by many different processes, but the most popular method is the sponge-dough method. After all the ingredients are mixed for the sponge part (65% of total flour, water, yeast, and yeast nutrients), the sponge is kept at 25°C for 4.5 h for the first fermentation. The volume increases to four to five times, and the temperature increases to 30°C due to the exothermic reaction of fermentation. The rest of the ingredients (flour, water, sweetener, fat, dairy product, crumb softener, rope and mold inhibitor, dough improver, and enrichment) are then added to make the final dough. The dough is mixed at 72 rpm to produce a smooth cohesive dough that has a glossy sheen. The mixed dough is allowed to rest for 20 to 30 min, then the dough is divided and rounded and put into molds. In the proof box (35-43 °C at 80-90% humidity for 60 min) the dough expands to the desired volume due to the fermentation of sugar with the development of C02, which is trapped by the elastic gluten of the dough. Baking is the last step in bread making. During baking the heat of the process expands the trapped gas in the dough matrix and causes the dough fabric to oven-spring. Enzymes are active until the dough reaches 75°C, when the gluten matrix coagulates and dough structure is set into the form of the bread. When the bread surface reaches 130 to 140°C, sugar and soluble protein react chemically to give the crust color and textures. The center of the bread does not exceed 100°C. After cooling, slicing, wrapping, and distributing, the bread reaches consumers. In many places in Europe, bread is baked a couple of times a day and consumers eat bread fresh from the oven. In the United States, breads in supermarkets are usually half a day to a day old before consumers purchase the products. One of the problems of the science of bread making is staling. After years of research, the exact cause of staling is still unresolved.

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