Fermented Liquid and Semisolid Dairy Products

Cultured Buttermilk. Pasteurized skim milk inoculated with 0.5% mixture of Streptococcus (Lactococcus) lactis, S. (L.) cremoris, Leuconostoc cremoris, or L. dextranicum incubated at 22°C for 14 to 18 h, results in a product with pH 4.5 acid curds with pleasant aroma and flavor. It has acid tastes.

Sour Cream. Milk with 19% milk fat and 0.2% citric acid inoculated with 1% S. (L.) lactis and S. (L.) cremoris, incubated at 22°C for 14 to 16 h results in a product with pH 4.5 that is creamy and sour and good for baked potatoes and other foods.

Acidophilus Milk. Skim milk inoculated with 5% Lactobacillus acidophilus incubated at 38°C for 18 to 24 h results in an acidic (1% acid) sour milk product. It is claimed to have health benefits due to large numbers of live cultures in the product.

Sweet Acidophilus Milk. Skim milk inoculated with a large percentage of L. acidophilus results in 5 X 106; L. acidophilus per mL of live cultures in milk. The product is not fermented and must be kept cold (4°C) until sold. Contrary to regular acidophilus milk, objected to by some consumers due to the high acidity, this product has no acid taste but is claimed to relieve gastrointestinal problems.

Bulgaricus Milk. Whole milk inoculated with 2% L. bul-garicus incubated at 38°C for 10 to 12 h results in a sour

(2-4% acid) product, claimed to relieve gastrointestinal problems. It is consumed in large quantities by people in the Georgia region of Europe.

Yogurt. Milk with added 2 to 4% nonfat dry milk powder inoculated with 5% combination of S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus (1:1 ratio, by weight, or 5:1 ratio by cocci to rod) incubated at 45°C for 3 to 6 h or 32°C for 12 to 14 h results in a smooth, viscus gel with a delicate walnutlike flavor. The product must be chilled immediately. A variety of fruits, berries, and flavors can be added to the product. This is the fastest-growing product in the dairy industry.

Kefir. Goat, sheep, or cow's milk inoculated with kefir grain (a mixture of Saccharomyces kefir, Torula, Lactobacillus caucasicus, Leuconostoc, etc) incubated at 22°C for 12 to 18 h results in a product with 1% alcohol and 0.8% acid. The product is strained through cheesecloth. The milk foams and fizzles like beer.

Koumiss. Mare's milk (which has five times more vitamin C than cow's milk) inoculated with L. bulgaricus plus Torula yeast incubated at 22°C for 12 to 18 h results in a drink with 1 to 2.5% alcohol and 0.7 to 1.8% acid.

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