Fumaric acid has been used to prevent the malolactic fermentation in wines and as an antimicrobial agent in wines (7). The compound is lethal to ascospores of Talaromyces flavus and Neosartorya fischeri (7). Esters of fumaric acid (monomethyl, dimethyl, and ethyl) at 0.15 to 0.2% have been tested as a substitute or adjunct for nitrate in bacon. Fumaric acid esters inhibit Clostridium botulinum toxin formation in bacon, and the methyl, dimethyl, ethyl, and diethyl fumarates inhibit fungal growth in tomato juice and on bread (7).
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