Fundamentals

The process of sanitation is intended to remove all undesirable material (food residues, microorganisms, foreign bodies, and cleaning chemicals) from surfaces in an economical manner, to a level at which any residues remaining are of minimal risk to the quality or safety of the product. Sanitation is divided into two broad areas, the cleaning of open and closed surfaces, though the principles are essentially the same. Open surface sanitation refers to all equipment and environmental surfaces that are readily cleaned manually. Closed surface sanitation, generally referred to as clean-in-place or CIP, is undertaken where manual cleaning is difficult, impractical or impossible (e.g., tanks, homogenizers and pipelines).

Sanitation programs are a combination of four major factors:

• Mechanical or kinetic energy

• Chemical energy

• Temperature or thermal energy

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