General References

G. L. Blackburn, J. P. Grant, and V. R. Young, edsAmino Acids, Metabolism and Medical Applications, John Wright PSG, Inc., 1983.

J. P. Greenstein and M. Winitz, eds., Chemistry of the Amino Acids, Vol. 1, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1966.

T. Kaneko et al., eds., Amino Acid Industry, Kodansha, Japan, 1973.

J. I. Kraschwitz and M. H. Grant, eds., Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed., Vol. 2, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1992.

A. Yoshida et al., eds., Nutrition: Proteins and Amino Acids, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.

Table 1. Functional Properties of Proteins in Foods

General classification Functional property

Organoleptic Hydration


Thermal Rheological


Color, odor, flavor, texture, turbidity Solubility, dispersibility, wettability, waterholding capacity, water absorption Emulsification, emulsion stability, foamability, whippability, film formation, fat absorption, binding properties Thermocoagulability, heat stability Elasticity, viscosity, gelation, cohesion, extrudability, adhesion, coagulation, aggregation, hardness, chewiness Compatability with additives, enzyme activity, susceptibility to modification

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