General References

References 9, 25, 78, and 89 are also good general references.

L. A. Appelqvist and R. Ohlson, Rapeseed Cultivation, Composition, Processing and Utilization, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1972.

D. S. Kimber and D. I. McGregor, Brassica Oilseeds: Production and Utilization, CAB, International, Wellingford, UK, 1995.

J. K. G. Kramer, F. D. Sauer, and W. J. Pigden, eds., High and Low Erucic Rapeseed Oils—Production, Usage, Chemistry and Toxicological Evaluation, Academic Press, New York, 1983.

G. Robbelen, R. K. Downey, and A. Ashri, Oil Crops of the World, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989.

R. E. Salmon and D. R. Clandinin, Canola Meal for Livestock and Poultry, Canola Council of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

D. H. Scarisbrick and R. W. Daniels, Oilseed Rape, Collins, London, 1986.

D. Swern, Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1985.

M. Vaisey-Genser and N. A. M. Eskin, Canola Oil: Properties and Performance, Canola Council of Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba 1987.

N. A. M. Eskin B. E. McDonald University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

CARAMEL. See Colorants: caramel.

CARBOHYDRATES: CLASSIFICATION, CHEMISTRY, AND LABELING

Carbohydrates can be, and are, classified in several different ways. They are often classified according to functionality in the minds of food scientists, for example, as sweeteners, nonsweet (or only slightly sweet) bulking agents, texturizing materials, suspending agents, and so on. While tables generally have not been constructed in this way, that is the approach taken later in this article. First the more traditional method will be presented. Both types of classification are included in Table 1.

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