General References

A. J. C. Andersen and P. N. Williams, Margarine, 2nd ed., Per-

gamon Press, New York, 1965. M. M. Chrysam, "Table Spreads and Shortenings," in T. H. Applewhite, ed., Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 4th ed., Vol. 3, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1965, pp. 41-126. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 CFR Part 166, Sees. 401, 701, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1999. D. Melnick, "Development of Organoleptically and Nutritionally Improved Margarine Products," J. Home Economics 6, 793798 (1968).

A. J. Haighton, "Blending, Chilling and Tempering of Margarines and Shortenings," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 53, 357-399 (1978). Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilitization, American Soybean Association, St. Louis, Mo., and American Oil Chemists Society, Champaign, 111., 1980. Y. H. Hui, ed., Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 5th ed.,

John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996. Margarine Statistics Report, National Association of Margarine

Manufacturers, Washington, D.C., 1988. S. F. Riepma, The Story of Margarine, Public Affairs Press, Washington, D.C., 1970. L. H. Weiderman, "Margarine and Margarine Oil: Formulation and control," J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 55, 823-829 (1978).

John Bumbalough Land O'Lakes, Inc. Arden Hills, Minnesota of the animals and may be recovered in active and stable forms for commercial use. There is considerable demand for enzymes throughout the world for food, biomedical, and other commercial applications. Worldwide sales of commercial enzymes were estimated at $1.5 billion for 1997 (1). Traditional enzymes such as pepsins, rennets, trypsins, and lipases are derived from animal tissues, whereas bromelain, ficin, papain, lipoxygenase, and amylases are derived from plants. Plant and animal enzymes represent a small fraction of commercial enzymes, with the greatest diversity of commercial enzymes coming from microorganisms that have been stringently evaluated and certified as safe. Examples of microbial enzymes are glucose oxidase, pectinesterases, cellulase, and glucose isomerase. Microbial enzymes are used as replacements or substitutes for homologous enzymes from animals or plants because they are relatively easier and cheaper to produce. Other contributory factors to the decline in the use of plant and animal enzymes are related to political as well as agricultural and economic policies of various governments that regulate food and agricultural practices. The marine environment presents an excellent opportunity for supplying commercial enzymes to help meet the demands for these compounds. In several of the major fish-producing countries, the by-products of seafood harvesting comprise about 50% of the entire harvest. These materials are largely underutilized and discarded as waste. However, this abundant material also includes the enzyme-rich digestive organs, and the enzymes may be recovered in various forms to suit a range of commercial applications. It is estimated that less than half of the fish offal generated in fish plants is converted into value-added products such as pet food, fish meal, and compost, while the remainder poses problems related to disposal and environmental pollution. This discussion focuses on enzymes from fish and shellfish tissues that either have the potential for commercial application or constitute a source of concern for food-processing operations, especially extracellular enzymes produced by digestive organs and intracellular enzymes from fish muscle tissues. Enzymes from digestive organs have the greatest potential for commercial application because of their high tissue concentration. However, the recovery of enzymes present at low concentration, such as intracellular enzymes, is also of interest, because recent advances in biotechnology will facilitate the cloning of the genes for those enzymes and their subsequent production by fermentation. The use of immobilized forms of these enzymes will also allow use of expensive enzymes in clinical or biochemical applications.

See also Fats and oils: properties, processing technology, and commercial shortenings.

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