General References

A. Brody and K. Marsh, The Wiley Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology, 2nd ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1997. S. A. Matz, The Chemistry and Technology of Cereals as Food &

Feed, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1959. S. A. Matz, Cereal Technology, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1970.

Dick Fizzell G. Coccodrilli Charles J. Cante General Foods USA White Plains, New York


The change in color following mechanical or physiological injury of fruits and vegetables is due to oxidative reactions of phenolic compounds by polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the reaction products, o-quinones, to various polymerized products. In food processing, such color change is commonplace during preparation for canning, dehydration, freezing, or storage. Formation of the dark brown color causes the product to become unattractive and is accompanied by undesirable changes in flavor and a reduction in nutritive value. However, in some other cases such as the manufacture of tea, coffee, or cocoa, this enzymatic browning reaction is an essential part of the processing. Enzyme-catalyzed oxidative browning has been recognized since 1895, when the change in color of fresh apple cider was gated shipping case. Shipping cases are generally regular slotted containers able to withstand a burst test ranging from 150-275 lb. Top-to-bottom compression strength of the case is important to prevent crushing during handling and storage. Minimum standards for corrugated containers have been established for rail and truck shipments and are covered under specific uniform classification codes (24-26).

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