General References

S. W. Ahmed, K. Sushil, and P. K. Mandal, "Tumbling and Massaging—An Emerging Technology for the Meat Industry," Indian Food Industry 14, 37-41 (1995).

F. M. Aramouni, E. A. E. Boyle, and L. R. Vogt, "Introduction to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) Concept in a Small Meat-processing Plant," Dairy Food and Environmental Sanitation 16, 431-439 (1996).

T. Backers and B. Noll, "Dietary Fiber for Meat Processing," Food Marketing & Technology 11, 4-6, 8 (1997).

S. Barbut, "Effects of Three Chopping Methods on Bologna Characteristics," Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 23, 149-153 (1990).

Z. Bern, B. Zlender, and H. Hechelman, "Desirable and Undesirable Effects of Smoking Meat Products," Fleischerei 46, III-VII (1995).

H. J. Buckenhueskes, "Functions of Sugars in Meat Processing," Fleischwirtschaft 78, 1271-1275 (1998).

B. Carpentier, "Sanitary Quality of Meat Chopping Board Surfaces: A Bibliographical Study," Food Microbiology 14, 31-37 (1997).

S. F. Chang, T. C. Huang, and A. M. Peason, "Control of the Dehydration Process in Production of Intermediate-Moisture Meat Products: A Review," Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 39, 71-161 (1996).

K. J. Debrowski, S. Gwiazda, and A. Rutkowski, "Non-meat Proteins as Functional Ingredients in Meat Processing," International Food Ingredients No. 6, 26-30 (1991).

R. M. Estrada, E. A. E. Boyle, and J. L. Marsden, "Liquid Smoke Effects on Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Its Antioxidant Properties in Beef Products," J. Food Sci. 63, 150-153 (1998).

M. Fode et al., "First Results on Experimentation of Solar Dryers in Tropical Ambient," Rivista di Ingegneria Agaria 28, 65-72 (1997).

U. Gerhardt, "Starch and Plant Proteins in Meat Processing," Fleischerei 48, III-VIII (1997).

H. G. Glenk, "Technical Gases in Meat Processing," Fleischerei 45, 20, 22, 25-26 (1994).

M. D. Guillen and M. L. Ibargoitia, "New Components With Potential Antioxidant and Organoleptic Properties, Detected for the First Time in Liquid Smoke Flavoring Preparations," J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 1276-1284 (1998).

M. D. Guillen et al., "Effects of Smoking on Meat Products," Alimentation Equipos y Tecnologia 17, 104-114(1998).

B. Hermey and H. Patzelt, "Using Liquid Smoke," Fleischwirtschaft 75, 445-447 (1995).

P. Iascone, "Packaging of Meat Products," Italia Imballaggio 2, 18-25 (1995).

A. T. Kamdem Kenmegne and J. Hardy, "Influence of Various Conditions on Meat Grinding Characteristics," J. Food Eng. 25, 179-196 (1995).

E. Karmas, Sausage Products Technology, Noyes Data Group, Park Ridge, N.J., 1977.

C. Kuraishi, J. Sakamoto, and T. Soeda, "Application of Transglutaminase for Meat Processing," Fleischwirtschaft 78,657-658, 660, 702 (1998).

I. Lisse and A. L. Wack Raoult, "Drying of Meat Materials (Lean and Fat) by Deep-fat Frying in Animal Fat," Sciences des Aliments 18, 423-435 (1998).

J. A. Maga, Smoke in Food Processing, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1988.

D. Marque et al., "Safety Evaluation of an Ionized Multilayer Plastic Film Used for Vacuum Cooking and Meat Preservation," Food Additives and Contaminants 15, 831-841 (1998).

J. D. Meyer, J. B. Luchansky, and J. G. Cerveny, "Inhibition of a Psychotropic Clostridium Species by Sodium Diacetate and Sodium Lactate in a Cook-in-the-Bag, Refrigerated Turkey Breast Product," J. Food Prot. 58 (Suppl.), 9 (1995).

"Mincing, Chopping and Cutting: The Alpha and Omega of Meat Processing," Fleischerei 43, 630-632 (1992).

S. A. Muller, "Packaging and Meat Quality," Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal 23, 22-25 (1990).

A. M. Pearson and F. W. Tauber, Processed Meats, 2nd ed., AVI, Westport, Conn., 1987.

J. P. G. Piette et al., "Influence of Processing on Adherence of a Highly Extended Ham to its Cooking Bag," Meat Science 48, 101-113 (1998).

"Processing and Packaging," Food Review 23,25,27,29,31 (1996).

A. Rutkowski, Advances in Smoking of Foods, Pergamon Press, New York, 1976.

F. J. M. Smulders and R. L. J. M. van Laack, "Meat Quality. Ante Mortem Handling of Animals and Fresh Meat Processing. An Update," Fleischwirtschaft 72, 1385-1389 (1992).

A. van der Leest, "Trends in the Modern Meat Industry," Food Marketing & Technology 8, 64-66 (1994).

P. Y. Wang, "Meat Processing," in C. W. Hall, A. W. Farrall, and A. L. Rippen, eds., Encyclopedia of Food Processing, 2nd ed., AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Conn., 1987.

H. Weinberg, "Computer Controlled Manufacture of Meat and Sausage Products. Weight as a Factor in Manufacture of High-Quality Sausages," Fleischerei 44, 200-203 (1993).

M. Weisenfels, "Low-Pollution Smoking in Batch Processes," Fleischwirtschaft 69, 1111-1113,1131 (1989).

M. Wilms, "Smoking of Meat Products. Development of Modern Smoking Processes From Economic and Ecological Viewpoints," Fleischwirtschaft 77, 704-708 (1997).

R. Wittkowski, W. Baltes, and W. G. Jenning, "Analyses of Liquid Smoke and Smoked Meat Volatiles by Headspace Gas Chromatography," Food Chem. 37, 135-144 (1990).

Y. Zhao and J. G. Sebraneck, "Technology for Meat Grinding Systems to Improve Removal of Hard Particles From Ground Meat," Meat Science 45, 389-403 (1997).

Pie Yi Wang Armour Swift-Eckrich Downers Grove, Illinois

See also Meat and electrical stimulation; Meat slaughtering and processing equipment.

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