General References

Briggs, D. E., J. S. Hough, R. Stevens, and T. W. Young, Malting and Brewing Science, Vol. 1, Malt and Sweet Wort; Vol. 2, Hopped Wort and Beer, Chapman and Hall, New York, 1981. Broderick, H. M., The Practical Beer, Master Brewers Association of the Americas, Madison, Wis., 1977. Broderick, H. M., Beer Packaging, Master Brewers Association of the Americas, Madison, Wis., 1982.

Burgess, A. H., Hops, Interscience Publishers, New York, 1964. European Brewery Convention, Fermentation and Storage Symposium, E.B.C. Monograph V, European Brewery Convention, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1978. European Brewery Convention, Symposium on the Relationship Between Malt and Beer, Helsinki, E.B.C. Monograph VI, European Brewery Convention, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1980.

European Brewery Convention, Flavour Symposium, Copenhagen November 1981, E.B.C. Monograph VII, European Brewery Convention, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1981. Findlay, W. P. K., Modern Brewing Technology, Macmillan, London, 1971.

Pollock, J. R. A., Brewing Science, Vol. 1, 1979; Vol. 2, 1981; Vol.

3, 1987, Academic Press, Orlando, Fla. Preece, I. A., The Biochemistry of Brewing, Oliver & Boyd, London. 1954.

Rose, A. H., and J. S. Harrison, The Yeasts, Vol. 2, Academic Press,

Orlando Fla., 1987. Strausz, D. A., The Hop Industry of Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, Washington State University Press, Pullman, Wash., 1969.

Joseph L. Owades Consultant Sonoma, California

BEVERAGES: CARBONATED

Carbonated beverages, or soft drinks, are the most popular beverages in North America and a growing category worldwide. Per capita consumption in the United States reached 54 gallons per year in 1997. Worldwide consumption is estimated at almost 7.5 gallons per year for every man, woman, and child alive. This has created an industry with estimated annual U.S. sales of over $54 billion, employing more than 136,000 workers, producing hundreds of different flavors.

Few products are as closely associated with American ingenuity, enterprise, and culture as soft drinks. The trademark of the market leader, the Coca-Cola Company, is the most recognized trademark in the world. That one company served an estimated 1 billion customers in 1997. Although a few large corporations dominate sales, there has always been a market for hundreds of small businesses offering unique alternatives to the mass-marketed brand names.

The emergence and growth of this category resulted from the ideas of individuals in the United States and Europe, who found better flavors, better marketing, or better ways of producing their beverages. Although descriptions of naturally carbonated mineral waters date back 2,000 years, the production and distribution of flavored soft drinks began little more than 200 years ago. The development of soft drinks follows (see "History of Carbonated Beverages"). What is a carbonated beverage and how is it different from other beverages?

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