General References

D. J. Bosman, "The South African Livestock Industry," Fundepec

International Meeting, Brazil, August 20-21, 1998. Manufacturing: Products Manufactured (Food, Beverages and Tobacco Products), Statistical Release p 3051.1, Central Statistical Service, Pretoria, South Africa, 1996. M. R. Mokoena, Impact Assessment of Livestock Production Research in South Africa, ARC-Animal Improvement Institute, Irene, South Africa, 1998. R. T. Naude, "International Development: South Africa," in Y. H. Hui, ed., Encyclopedia of Food Science and Technology, 1st ed., 1988, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992.

H. H. meissner

ARC—Animal Nutrition and Animal Products Institute Irene, South Africa



Spain, with an area of 505,990 km2 and a population of 39.8 million in 1999, is one of five large countries of the European Union (EU) Geographic and climatic differences between regions of continental Spain, with mean annual rainfall ranging from 200 to 1600 mm and annual mean temperatures ranging from 9 to 18°C, are responsible for a great variety in the agricultural production. The particular characteristics of the Balearic and, especially, the Canary Islands contribute to the diversity of Spanish agricultural systems.

Vegetables, with a production of 10.62 million t, citrus fruits, with 4.89 million t, and noncitrus fruits, with 3.08 million t, are among the most characteristic agricultural Spanish productions. Annual grape production raised to 3.35 million t, out of which 12% was table grapes. Olive production in 1996 reached 4.47 million t, table olives representing approximately 4% of total production. The production of grain cereals and pulses was 11.57 and 0.19 million t, respectively, and that of sugar beet and potatoes 7.63 and 4.18 million t, respectively (1).

Meat produced in Spain raised to 4.13 million t in 1996, with pork (56.1%), poultry (21.3%), and beef (13.7%) standing out as the major productions. Cows' milk production, mainly in northern Spain, was 5.56 million t, and significant amounts of ewes' milk and goats' milk (0.23 and 0.30 million t, respectively) were also produced, mainly in central and southern Spain. Egg production reached 0.75 million t per year (1).

The importance of agriculture and food industry for the Spanish economy is shown by the fact that agricultural exports contributed to 15.3% of total exported goods in 1997, for a value of 14,034 million euros (ME), out of which 50.5% were products from the food industry. The value of final agricultural production was 26,772 ME, and that of agricultural imports 11,704 ME. Other countries forming part of the EU constitute the major market (67.5% of the total value) for Spanish agricultural exports, and Spain, on its turn, receives 66.7% of total agricultural and food imports from its EU partners (1,2).

Population active in agriculture was 1.254 million in 1997, which added to 0.437 million active in the food industry sector accounted for 10.5% of total active population.


Fisheries and aquaculture are economic activities of a major importance for Spain, the second country in the world in per capita consumption of fish (more than 35 kg per year). Catches and production of fish and seafood raised to a total amount of 1.21 million t in 1995 (Secretaria de Pesca, unpublished data, 1999). Catches of fish species of marine origin accounted for 75.9% of the total tonnage and were marketed as fresh, frozen, or salted fish (77, 22, and 1%, respectively), with commercial values of 1203 ME, 230

ME, and 20 ME, respectively. Catches of crustaceans represented 2.1% of the total tonnage, with a commercial value of 191 ME, whereas catches of mollusks accounted for 10.9% of the total tonnage, with a commercial value of 218 ME per year.

Fish farming has increased exponentially during the present decade, both in marine and continental waters, to a production with an estimated value of 210 ME per year. Marine aquaculture yielded 0.11 million t in 1995, equivalent to 9.2% of the total tonnage of fish and seafood (Secretaría de Pesca, unpublished data, 1999). Mussels are the product with the highest tonnage. However, fish species such as sea bass, sole, bream, and turbot and seafood species such as oyster, clam, cockle, and prawn are gaining importance. Continental aquaculture produced 0.02 million t in 1995, equivalent to 1.8% of the total tonnage, with trout, tench, and eel as the main freshwater species.

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