Early beverages of commerce include milk, mineral waters, tea, beer, and wine. Chapters could be written on the histories of each of these, with roots in early civilizations. Explorers constantly expanded the list with discoveries of herbs, spices, and fruits from distant lands. Beverage purveyors developed preservation methods, processing techniques, and improved packaging to expand their markets. New machines such as grinders, presses, distilleries, and dehydrators improved yields and quality. Pasteurization and natural preservatives, along with better packaging to reduce spoilage, greatly extended shelf life and distribution range. As availability of supplies increased, marketing
Table 1. Beverage Categories
Water—tap, purified, spring, sparkling, flavored, caffeinated. Carbonated soft drinks
Alcoholic—beer, cider, wine, distilled spirits, low-calorie beer
Milk and dairy-based beverages
Coffee and tea—hot and cold, cappucino, latte
Fruit juices and juice drinks (less than 100% juice)
Fruit flavored (no juice)
Powdered drink mixes
Frozen drinks—shakes, slushes
Health drinks—nutrition fortified, herbal, nutraceuticals Diet drinks—low-calorie, low-fat, weight control aids Chocolate based—hot cocoa, cold sweetened New Age—Innovative new blends that cross categories and promotion of beverages accelerated the trial and proliferation of new drinks. The beverage market grew to become huge. Beverages make up the largest portion of our daily food intake. Proliferation of products and packages has made drinks conveniently available almost everywhere we go in the Western world. Packages range from little tea bags and powder packets up to 5-gal bulk dispensers and kegs.
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