The discovery of DNA ligase in 1967 followed by the DNA restriction endonucleases and RNA reverse transcriptase in 1970 was the beginning of era of genetic engineering. Also, in 1970 the first record for total synthesis of a gene in vitro was produced. In 1972 the first in vitro recombinant DNA molecule was generated, and a year later the first plasmid vector-mediated transformation was demonstrated. In 1975 the methodology for Southern blot was published. The blotting system (Fig. 1) allows for isolation and identification of DNA fragments by gel electrophoresis and their transfer (or blotting) onto a membrane filter for direct hybridization to a single-stranded radioactively labeled or biotin-linked probe. Four years later, the discovery of introns and exons in eukaryotic genes changed our concepts of gene transcripts, and the same year rapid DNA sequencing methods became available. In the decades following these outstanding achievements we have seen a rise in the commercial application of genetic engineering and production of human, plant, and microbial processes or products (2). It is amazing how rapidly genetic engineering has grown and what in the future it holds.

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

Homemade Pet Food Secrets

It is a well known fact that homemade food is always a healthier option for pets when compared to the market packed food. The increasing hazards to the health of the pets have made pet owners stick to containment of commercial pet food. The basic fundamentals of health for human beings are applicable for pets also.

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