Aged under pressure in a tank 1

Beans removed from the liquid 1

Sun dried 1


Figure 6. Process for making Hamanatto. Source: Ref. 23.

color. In China, the product is described as "shi" in the old literature and Chi-Min-Yao-Shu (Table 3) (15). It is mainly consumed as a side dish. The methods of preparing soybeans for fermentation and the composition of the brine may vary from country to country, but the essential features are similar. Soybeans are soaked and steamed until soft, drained, cooled, mixed with parched wheat flour, and then inoculated with a strain of A. oryzae. After incubation, the beans are packed with the desired amount of salt, spices, wine, and water and aged for several weeks or months. The finished products are blackish, they have a salty taste, and their flavor resembles that of shoyu. However, they may differ in salt and moisture contents. Ha-manatto is rather soft, having a high moisture content. Tbushih has a much lower moisture content than that of hamanatto and therefore is not as soft as hamanatto. Ta-otjo tends to have a sweet taste because sugar is often added to the brine (23).

A typical process for making hamanatto in Japan is outlined in Figure 6. The finished product has a salt content of 13% and a moisture content of 38%. The fermented beans can be used as an appetizer to be consumed with bland foods, such as rice gruel, or they can be cooked with vegetables, meats, and seafoods as a flavoring agent (23).

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