Figure 6. Alternative configurations of spray dryers showing (a) tall form type and (b) conical.

Table 2. Comparison between Direct-Fired Band Dryer and Spray-Dryer Costs in the Processing of Titanium Dioxide

Spray dryer

Band dryer

Initial moisture content, WAV Final moisture content, WAV Feed, lb/h Evaporation lb/h Output, lb/h

Inlet air temperature, °F Exhaust air temperature, °F Direct gas firing

Hourly operating cost gas and electricity Thermal efficiency Installed horsepower Floor area occupied, ft2 Installed cost

Energy cost per pound of dried product

50% 0.5% 12,000 5970 6030 1150 250

Gas CV = 1000 Btu/ft2

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