Bacillus, and Staphylococcus

Refrigerated fresh haddock fillets contain about 105 g of initial bacteria, predominated by Moraxella-Acinetobacter and Corynebacterium. After storage at 1°C for 14 days the bacterial number reaches 2.1 x 108/g and seafood enters the spoilage stage. Pseudomonas (Alteromonas) putrefa-ciens and fluorescent pseudomonads are organisms responsible for the spoilage of haddock at refrigerated temperatures (23). These spoilers account for only about 1% of the total count at the beginning but increase to at least 30% at the stage of spoilage. In other words, whenever Pseudomonas putrefaciens and fluorescent pseudomonads reach 30% of the total bacterial count, fish spoilage will result regardless of total bacterial level. When cod is stored at 20°C Alteromonas and Vibrionaceae will cause spoilage in one day (24).

As Pseudomonas putrefaciens, fluorescent pseudomonads, and other potential spoilers increase rapidly in initial spoilage stage; they produce vast amounts of proteolytic and other hydrolytic enzymes (5,25). Various mac-romolecules of fish body are degraded. Proteins are decomposed by proteases to peptides and amino acids and then further broken down to indole, amines, acids, sulfide compounds, and ammonia (26). Lipases break down lipids to form fatty acids, glycerol, and other products. Nucleotides are decomposed into nitrogenous compounds. Many enzymatic tests can determine microbial spoilage activity in fish, including hydrogen sulfide, gelatin hydrolysis. DNase, RNase, amylase, lipase, and trimethylamine oxide reductase tests and inoculation test on fish juice or fillets (20).

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