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Both monoclonal (211,237) and polyclonal antibodies were produced against aflatoxin M-l. RIAs (235,236), ELISAs (221,237-240), and an affinity column cleanup using monoclonal antibodies (234,242) followed by direct fluorescence measurement of aflatoxin M-l in raw milk (240) have been described. In some cases milk could be tested without any cleanup (221,235), whereas, some methods required extraction of the samples prior to analysis (235,238-242).

Zearalenone can be detected by RIA and ELISA (243,249) (Table 5). An affinity column was developed with a monoclonal antibody (247,249) and used to clean up milk samples prior to analysis by ELISA. The monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies described in these references (243,249) exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity to a-and /?-Zearalenol. Zearalenone is metabolized to these analogues and they have been detected in trace levels in bovine milk after cows were fed feed containing high levels of zearalenone (269,270). Detection of these analogue using the antibodies is an attractive feature.

There have been immunoassays published for detection of various trichothecenes (Table 5). Both RIA and ELISA have been described for T-2, some of which employ monoclonal antibodies (230,252-255) and some employ polyclonal antibodies (256-258). A recent report was made of an immunochromatographic method (271) for isolation of group A trichothecenes of which T-2 is a member. These various antibodies exhibit differing degrees of cross-reactivity to 3'-OHT-2 and other metabolites. Detection of these metabolites in biological systems would be useful, because they are found in significant amounts when T-2 toxicosis occurs (272-274).

To date there have been few reports of antibodies produced to DON and their application to RIA or ELISA (Table 5). Two investigators have demonstrated repeated success at developing IAs for mycotoxin detection. Chu (University of Wisconsin at Madison, Food Institute) is regarded as one pioneer in mycotoxin analysis with emphasis in the area of immunoassay development. Another is Pestka (Michigan State University, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition) a former postdoctoral as sociate in Chu's laboratory. The successes in developing antibodies to DON have been reported from their laboratories. Successful immunogens were prepared for immunization of mice (261) and rabbits (259,260) which enabled detection of DON by RIA and ELISA. Table 6 also provides a list of IAs developed for ochratoxin A detection. Ochra-toxin A can be detected in barley (265) and wheat (266).

A number of companies sell kits that enable detection of various mycotoxins. The majority of commercial kits sold are for aflatoxin testing. The different companies claim differing cross-reactivities of their antibodies employed in their aflatoxin B] detection kits. Aflatoxin G1; G2, and B2 are also detected in many of the kits. Aflatoxin Bx detection ELISA kits are sold by the following companies: Neogen Corp. (Lansing, Mich.), International Diagnostics (St. Joseph, Mich.), Idexx (Portland, Maine), Environmental Diagnostics Corp. (Burlington, N.C.), and Transia (Lyon, France). Affinity columns are sold by VICAM (Somerville, Mass.) and Oxoid (Columbia, Md.). Neogen and Idexx sell AFM-1 ELISAs. Aflatoxin Mx affinity columns are sold by VICAM and Oxoid. Environmental Diagnostics Corp. and Ube (distributor for the Japanese company is Wako Chemicals, Dallas, Tex.) market ELISA kits for ochratoxin A detection. Neogen Corp. and Environmental Diagnostics market elisa for zearalenone and T-2 toxin testing. Neogen Corp. the only company that markets an elisa kit that enables the user to test for the presence of DON in samples.

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