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Note: For both the EST and Malthus tests, three organisms were used— Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus; a pass criteria of a 5 log reduction in 5 min for all three organisms was used.

Note: For both the EST and Malthus tests, three organisms were used— Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus; a pass criteria of a 5 log reduction in 5 min for all three organisms was used.

to seek increased standards of hygiene. These have arisen from:

1. The realization of the importance of environmental routes of infection to product for both microbial and foreign body contaminants.

2. Pressure from customers and consumers for higher standards of hygiene.

3. Trends in food production towards short shelf-life products that intrinsically demand higher standards of hygiene.

4. The ability to sell product of a low microbiological load at a premium.

5. Increased plant size, where single mistakes will incur large financial losses.

6. Legislation.

Demand for increased standards of hygiene could lead to further advances in rapid methodology to determine surface hygiene in a time relevant to process control, chemical testing schemes that more closely simulate in-use conditions, improved application techniques that are more efficient and reduce cross-contamination via cleaning methods, the design of equipment and processing areas with more thought to ease of cleanability, and the increased use of automation and/or robotics for both production and sanitation operations.

Other trends may be influenced by environmental and energy restrictions. This will lead to the use of chemicals that leave no undesirable environmental residues. For ex ample, the formation of chemical by-products when chlorine is used as a disinfectant remains a great concern. Chlorination of drinking water has been shown to produce a number of cancer-causing chemicals (52). Consequently, there is a definite trend to increase the use of alternative disinfectants such as ozone, chlorine chloride, and chlora-mine for treating drinking water as they have fewer chlorinated disinfectant by-products (53). Further trends will include a reduction in water usage, and an associated move towards dry cleaning methods such as ring-main vacuum lines, and as for hygiene reasons, more efficient and less manual sanitation application techniques.

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