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Milkfats tailor-made for specific purposes are available (73). The primary role of milkfat, when incorporated into a food, is the contribution that it makes to flavor, texture, and consumer acceptability (74).

The benefits that dairy ingredients provide to food for-mulators differ according to the particular needs of each industry. For confectionery products, milkfat is compatible with cocoa butter in that it becomes part of the continuous fat phase and it contributes to smooth flavor and texture of milk chocolate. Caramel flavor is best developed from sweetened condensed milk by utilizing the browning properties of lactose and protein. Proteins, especially caseins, enhance moisture retention by candy and control the quantity of free and bound water (75). Hydrolyzed milk proteins act as whipping agents for frapp├ęs and marshmallows (76).

For bakery products, milk powders improve crust color, resilience, and structural strength of cakes. Whey powders improve tenderness and shortness. Whey powder and skim milk powder, when used in dough for cookies and biscuits, reduces the tendency of the dough to tear and produces smooth, even browning. Milk proteins at levels up to 20% improve the nutritional value of cookies end biscuits because they contain high levels of the essential amino acids that are deficient in soy and wheat flour. Butter imparts distinctive flavor to butter cookies and croissants (77,78).

For meat products, milk proteins offer improved appearance, increased yield, and economy. The powerful emulsion capacity of sodium caseinate is particularly valuable in comminuted meat products. Whey protein concentrates of high gel strength are important in reformed ham. Lactose will mask salts, phosphates, and bitter aftertaste while providing a low sweetness profile in liver products, cooked hams, and cooked sausages (79,80).

A very wide variety of proprietary dairy ingredients are manufactured for convenience of use in the food industry. Specific attention is paid to the physical form of powders to ensure dispersibility, mixibility, and low dust levels. Butter is available as flakes and in sheet form. Cheese may be shredded, diced, or sliced. Flavor enhancement, particularly for cheese and milk powder, is offered (81).

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