Methylene cyclohexane Cyclopentane y (gamma) k (kappa)

Figure 1. IUPAC rings.

cleaved. Thus /?-apo-8'-carotenal should be designated 8'-apo-/?-carotene-8'-al.

There are rules for carotenoids with more than 40 carbons, retro double-bond structures, designated chiral centers, and the use of the primes. This area is covered in more detail elsewhere (14). Pfander gives the structure and reference for more than 600 carotenoids (16).

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