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therefore is of paramount importance to establish realistic production requirements. This will avoid the inclusion of excessive scale-up factors or oversizing of drying equipment and thereby maximize operating efficiency.

Figure 17 illustrates the effects on thermal efficiency of either increasing the evaporative capacity by increased inlet temperatures or alternatively, reducing the inlet temperature with the exhaust temperature remaining constant at the level necessary to produce an acceptable dry product. While the figure refers to the total rejection case of the previous illustration where design throughput corresponds to an efficiency of 62.4%, the curve shows that if the unit is used at only 60% of design, dryer efficiency falls to 50%. The converse, of course, also is true.

In this brief presentation, an attempt has been made to highlight some of the factors affecting efficiency in drying operations and promote an awareness of where savings can be made by applying new techniques. While conditions differ from one drying process to another, it is clear that economies can and should be made.

SPRAY DRYING: NEW DEVELOPMENTS, NEW ECONOMICS

In the field of spray drying, the past 10 years have witnessed many new developments initiated mainly to meet three demands from food and dairy processors—better energy efficiency, improved functional properties of the finished powder, and production of new, specialized dried products. This has been accompanied by progress made in the automation of drying systems and in stricter requirements for the reduction of environmental impacts resulting from the operation of spray dryers.

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