"Root-mean-square total-sample standard deviation = 12.4343; Root-mean-square distance between observations = 60.9153.

of panelists, it was possible to demonstrate more conclusively that three cheese products were different (16). Before the panel was split into three clusters, classification of 180 samples by discriminant analysis into the product category to which they belonged was 76% correct. When DA was applied to each of the clusters separately, the success level was raised to 90%. Either PCA or CA can be used for the purpose of determining whether samples differ. Table 4 shows Ward's minimum variance cluster analysis applied to five grades of tea to learn how much alike or different they are. Tea no. 5 was a "fine" tea selected by an expert tea buyer. Tea no. 1 was the poorest as judged by the tea buyer. Note that the CA tells the investigator that the panelists can most readily tell apart teas no. 1 and 5. The fact that teas nos. 2, 3 and 4 did not break off from each other as readily indicates that the panelists had more difficulty in distinguishing among them.

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