U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 110, Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing or Holding Human Food, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1996.

U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 108, Emergency Permit Control, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1996.

U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Part 113, Thermally Processed Low-Acid Foods Packaged in Hermetically Sealed Containers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1996.

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Guide to Inspections of Acidified Food Manufacturers, 1998. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Guide to Inspections of Low Acid Canned Food Manufacturers, Part 1 (PB97-196141), 1996; Part 2 (PB97-196158), 1997; Part 3, 1998.

Elizabeth Andress University of Georgia Athens, Georgia


The term canola refers to cultivars of an oilseed crop, known in many countries as rapeseed, that is a major source of food and feed throughout the world. The crop has become the world's third most important edible oil source after soybeans and palm (1). The development by plant breeders of low erucic acid and low glucosinolate (double-low) varieties of rapeseed has proved pivotal to the rapid expansion in production and use of rapeseed worldwide. The rapeseed industry in Canada adopted the name canola in 1979 to distinguish those cultivars of Brassica napus and Brassica rapa (formerly, B. campestris) that are genetically low in both erucic acid and glucosinolates. Since the oil and meal from the double-low cultivars are nutritionally superior to those of earlier-grown varieties, the generic term canola also was used to identify the products from these varieties. The definition of canola was last updated in 1997 to take account of the development of mustard seed, Brassica júncea, varieties with low levels of erucic acid and glucosinolates. The definition adopted by the Canola Council of Canada in 1997 reads: "The oilseeds shall be the seed of the genus Brassica which shall contain less than 18 micromoles of total glucosinolates per gram of whole seed at a moisture content of 8.5%; and the oil component of which the seed shall contain less than one percent of all fatty acids as erucic acid" (2). Canola is not an exclusive Canadian trademark; the oilseed industry in other countries, such as Australia, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom, also have accepted canola to describe double-low rapeseed.

Canola has become Canada's second most valuable crop after wheat. Its rapid rise in economic importance is due to some positive agronomic advantages and the marketing alternatives it offers producers. Canada is the leading exporter of seed in the world, exporting an average volume of 2.8 million tons annually over the period 1992-1997 (3); Japan is the major importer of Canadian rapeseed/canola. In 1996-1997, the domestic crush of seed in Canada ex-

industry's quality control functions of the 1960s, its emphasis is food safety and prevention of health hazards. The use of HACCP systems for regulatory purposes is growing in the 1990s; however, the current GMPs covering low-acid canned foods and acidified foods already have their origins in the HACCP principles presented at the 1971 Conference on Food Protection.

Before an inspection, the investigators should become familiar with the firm's scheduled processes and all critical control factors. A critical factor is defined in 21 CFR 113.3(f) as any property, characteristic, condition, aspect, or other parameter, variation of which may affect the scheduled process and the attainment of commercial sterility. Regulations state that critical factors specified in the scheduled process must be measured and recorded in processing records. The inspector must review documentation at the firm to determine all critical factors are being controlled.


Another safeguard in regulation of the canning industry is the provision for recalls. The FDA and USDA have the authority and responsibility to issue recalls for potentially harmful foods. A company may discover defective product on its own and issue a recall. In other instances, the FDA or USDA finds a problem, informs the company, and suggests or requests a recall. Recalls may then be done voluntarily by the processor in cooperation with the governing agency. However, it the company does not comply with a requested recall, the agency can seek a court order authorizing seizure of the product.

The FDA and USDA have guidelines on how to conduct a recall for companies to follow. There are three classes of recalls according to the level of hazard involved. The strictest procedures are in place to ensure appropriate follow-through for recalls presenting the greatest hazard.

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