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Barley malt. A legally required ingredient in beer; it is barley that has been wetted and induced to germinate and then heated to stop the germination. The germination partly digests the starch and protein in the barley and produces some enzymes. The temperature at which the terminal drying is done determines the color of the resulting beer. Barley may be either two-rowed or six-rowed and may be either blue or white. Malt provides carbohydrates, protein, and yeast nutrients to the brewing process.

Bitterness unit or isohumulones. A quantitative measure of the amount of isohumulones—the major bitter compound from hops—in beer, in milligrams per liter.

Corn grits, corn flakes, corn starch, corn syrup, rice, milo, and sorghum. Ingredients used as adjuncts to dilute the barley malt; they are only a source of carbohydrates.

Enzyme. A protein, made by a living cell or organism, that catalyzes or promotes a chemical reaction. Most of the processes of life, and most of those in brewing, are mediated by enzymes.

Hops. The flower of a perennial vine Humulus lupulus grown in the United States only in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and California. Many varieties exist, with differing aromas and bittering qualities. The United States grows the varieties called Clusters, Northern Brewer, Fuggles, Bullion, and Cascades.

Krauesen. A stage after primary fermentation in which about 15% by volume of freshly fermenting beer is added to beer that has completed its fermentation. The term, as a noun, is also used to describe the foamy head that appears on top of a fermenting tank at the height of fermentation.

Original gravity. The concentration of solids in the wort from which beer is made. In the United States and most other countries, the concentration is expressed in percent solids, or "Plato or "Balling (after the workers who laboriously determined these values). Thus a wort with 12% solids would be said to have a gravity of 12°P (or 12°B), and the beer made from it would be said to have an original gravity of 12°P. An analysis of beer permits you to calculate the original gravity of the wort from which it was made, without reference to the wort. In the United Kingdom, the concentration of solids in the wort is expressed as the actual specific gravity. A wort with 12% solids would have a specific gravity of 1.048 and would be said to have a gravity of ten forty-eight.

Real extract. The actual percentage of solids in a beer, determined after removing the alcohol present.

Ruh. The period of rest between fermentation and filtration during which the beer clarifies itself and loses some harsh notes.

Wort. The liquid from which beer is made; a warm-water extract of malt and other grains.

Yeast. The microorganism that converts simple sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Two types of yeast are used in brewing—Saccharomyces carlsbergensis for lager beers and S. cerevisiae for ales. Most brewers have their own strain of these yeasts. During a normal brewers fermentation, yeast multiplies three- to fourfold, yielding more than enough yeast for successive brews. Yeast also produces many compounds that have a marked influence on the flavor of the beer.

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