• Nutritive or nonnutritive. Materials either are metabolized and provide calories or are not metabolized and thus are noncaloric.

• Natural or synthetic. Commercial products that are modifications of a natural product (eg, honey or crystalline fructose is considered natural; saccharin is a synthetic compound).

• Regular or low-calorie I dietetic /high-intensity. Although two sweeteners may have the same number of calories per gram, one may be considered low-calorie or high-intensity if less material is used for equivalent sweetness.

• As foods. For example, fruit juice concentrates can impart substantial sweetness.

Sweetness is a subjective perception influenced by a multitude of variables, including temperature of the food being tasted, pH, other flavors and ingredients in the food, physical characteristics of the food sweetener, concentration, rate of sweetness development, and permanence of sweetness and flavor. Sweetness is measured via sensory methods by taste panels. Results can vary depending on foods consumed prior to testing (even several hours before testing), the flavors to which the taster is accustomed, tasting experience of the panelist, time of day, and physical surroundings in the test room.

Sucrose, commonly known as table sugar (or refined sugar), is the standard against which all sweeteners are measured in terms of quality of taste and taste profile. It is consumed in the greatest volume of all sweeteners. However, sucrose, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and other natural sweeteners, such as molasses, honey, maple syrup, and lactose sweeteners, are not considered additives and are not covered in this report.

Polyols (sugar alcohols) are a group of sweeteners that provide the bulk of sugars, without as many calories as sugar (Table 8). Polyols are important sugar substitutes and utilized where their different sensory, special dietary, and functional properties make them feasible. Polyols are obtained from their parent sugars by catalytic hydrogénation. In most European countries and in the United States polyols are utilized in low-calorie food formulations. Polyols are absorbed more slowly in the digestive tract than sucrose; therefore, they are useful in certain special diets. However, when consumed in large quantities some of them have a laxative effect. Polyols offer the same preservative benefit and a similar bodying effect to food than sucrose. Polyols are more resistant to either thermal breakdown or hydrolysis than sugar. Moreover most polyols are resistant to fermentation by oral bacteria, and therefore prime ingredients for tooth-friendly confectioneries (eg, "sugarless chewing gums).

High-intensity sweeteners, once used mainly for dietetic purposes, are now used as food additives in a wide variety of products. They are termed high-intensity because they are many times sweeter than sucrose and closely mimic its sweetness profile. Because of the very low use levels, however, high-intensity sweeteners cannot perform other key auxiliary functions in food and often must be used in conjunction with other additives such as low-calorie bulking agents. The relative sweetness of high-intensity sweeteners to sucrose sugar and their regulatory status are summarized in Table 9.

In 1988, the U.S. FDA approved the use ofHoechst AG's acesulfame .KXSunette®) for use in chewing gum, dry beverage mixes, instant coffee and tea, gelatins, puddings, and nondairy creamers. In 1998 its approval was extended to

Table 9. High Intensity Sweeteners: Their Regulatory Status and Sweetness Relative to Sugar (1998)

Sweetener Sweetness, sucrose = 1 United States Canada Europe Japan

Table 9. High Intensity Sweeteners: Their Regulatory Status and Sweetness Relative to Sugar (1998)

Sweetener Sweetness, sucrose = 1 United States Canada Europe Japan

Cyclamate, Na Salt

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Salvation For The Sleep Deprived The Ultimate Guide To Sleeping, Napping, Resting And  Restoring Your Energy. Of the many things that we do just instinctively and do not give much  of a thought to, sleep is probably the most prominent one. Most of us sleep only because we have to. We sleep because we cannot stay awake all 24 hours in the day.

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