"Without tax. 'Only breweries. Source: Ref. 2.

"Without tax. 'Only breweries. Source: Ref. 2.

Professional qualification can be performed in multiple ways; the main levels of professional qualification are listed in Table 11.

After the successful attendance of 9 (or 10) years of the elementary school, a professional education of 2 to 3 years may follow. In addition to the training within the company, there is parttime school education. In some cases the complete education is conducted in specialized schools. It can be a choice between an industry and a smaller craftsman shop's environment education. Further qualification after several years of job experience can lead to a master or technician certificate. The first enables education of pupils within the industry's own branch.

Universities are institutions of the dual system of teaching and research. In 1998/99,1,824,000 students were registered at German universities, 271,575 persons, 48.4% women, in the first semester. In 1996 the student numbers were lower, for the first time, than in the year before. In

Table 11. Levels of Professional Qualifications in Germany

Course of Number of educated

School Professional education qualification persons in 1996 Skills

12-13 years secondary school or gymnasium 12-13 years secondary school or gymnasium

10 years Realschule

9-10 years elementary school

9-10 years elementary school

9-10 years elementary school

9-10 years elementary school

4-5 years university academic

4 years technical college Ing. graduate

2 years school technical assistant

3 years dual education within an enterprise and/ or school education

3 years dual education within an enterprise and/ or school education

3 years dual education within an enterprise and/ or school education

On-job training

Agriculture 7,260° Food Sciences 4,8706

Agriculture 2,692" Food Sciences 3,1446

Master additional school or courses experience

2 years school technician experience

Several professions thereof: Baker 17,642 Butcher 9,086

Work scientifically Self-responsible Management duties Self-employed, transfer of scientific knowledge into practical problem solving, technical management Implementation of technical work independently Performing specific work without instruction, instructing other workers, educating Planning of investment and operation of machinery, managing supply and labor requirements Technical skills, capable of performing difficult specific work

Specific work

"Horticulture collage and university: 2871 students. Source: Refs. 1, 2, and 8.

the food sector, students specialize in food technology (Universities: Berlin, Bonn, Hohenheim, Munich), food chemistry (Berlin, Bonn, Braunschweig, Dresden, Erlangen-Nümberg, Frankfurt/M, Hamburg, Hohenheim, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Munich, Münster, Stuttgart, Wuppertal, Würzburg), and nutrition science and nutrition economy (Bonn, Gießen, Hohenheim, Jena, Kiel, Munich, Potsdam). Horticultural universities are located in Berlin, Hannover, and Munich; agricultural branches are in Berlin, Bonn, Gießen, Göttingen, Halle-Wittenberg, Hohenheim, Kassel, Kiel, Munich, and Rostock. Additional disciplines taught at German universities are wine production, beverage technology, dairy economy, packaging technology, production technology, and automation and process technology. The German food industry also engages graduates from other disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, and pharmacy, thus providing transfer of knowledge and encouraging interdisciplinary concepts. It should be noted here that there are no restrictions or specific educational requirements to a position in the food industry. One exception is the official inspection of foods, where food chemists or veterinarians are required.


Total expenditures for research and development in Germany amounted in 1996 to 88,600 million DM. Industry and trade spent 67% of research funds, 18% were spent by universities, and 15% by noncommercial governmental or private institutions.

Research at Universities. The dual system of research and teaching is traditionally practiced at German univer sities and technical universities. They are exclusively affiliated with the federal states. Scientists (professors) appointed to a chair for an unlimited period may conduct self-responsible research within their working field. The budget is financed by the federal government concerned. Additional money sources are industry, private foundations, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (mainly fundamental research), or "Innovationskompetenz mittelständischer Unternehmen" by the Federal Ministry for Education and Research (applied research, development). Other sources of funding are the research projects supported by the EU in the FAIR, FLAIR-FLOW, and COST projects. More details can be found at the Web sites / flair.html or Information on the fields of the German universities and addresses can be found at the Web sites,, or

Federal Ministry for Nutrition and Agriculture. The Federal Ministry for Nutrition and Agriculture spends 500 million DM annually on research (9). The most important institutions are the 10 federal research centers, the Central Institution for Agricultural Documentation and Information ( (/zadi)) and 7 institutions (blue list), which are cofinanced with federal states. The topics of investigation are sustainable use of ecosystems and resources, protection of the natural environment and quality production, enhancement of food quality, further development of renewable resources, social economy, and information and documentation. The knowledge produced serves governmental decisions in the field of nutrition, agriculture and forestry, and consumer policy. It also is intended to support small- and medium-sized enterprises in answering technical questions and as an information source for the public.

Federal Ministry of Education and Research and the Commercial Environment. The Federal Ministry of Education and Research also funds a variety of projects within the food sector. As in the case of the Agricultural Ministry, the cooperation between university and other nonprofit research institutions and commercial R&D initiatives should be facilitated. Actual information can be obtained from Searchers about actual developments within the commercial sector can be started from or

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