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"Analytical values on a moisture-free basis (8).

6For baked goods, ground and processed meats, breakfast cereals, diet foods, infant foods, meat substitutes, confections, and milk replacers. "For ground and processed meats and infant foods.

''For processed meats, meat substitutes, infant foods, and dairy substitutes. 'N X 6.25.

"Analytical values on a moisture-free basis (8).

6For baked goods, ground and processed meats, breakfast cereals, diet foods, infant foods, meat substitutes, confections, and milk replacers. "For ground and processed meats and infant foods.

''For processed meats, meat substitutes, infant foods, and dairy substitutes. 'N X 6.25.

fat absorption, water absorption, texture, dough formation, adhesion, cohesion, elasticity, film formation, and aeration. The use of some oilseed proteins in foods is limited by flavor, color, and flatus problems. Raw soybeans, for example, taste grassy, beany, and bitter. Even after processing, residues of these flavors may limit the amounts of soybean proteins that can be added to a given food. Flatus production by defatted soy flours has been attributed to raffinose and stachyose. These sugars are removed by processing the defatted flours into concentrates and isolates.

Industrial Products

In the United States, only soybean protein isolates are used for industrial applications. They are available commercially in unhydrolyzed types are made by the process outlined in Figure 6; the acid-precipitated curd is washed, dried, and then ground. For the hydrolyzed types, the acid-precipitate curd is suspended in alkali and heated to dissociate the proteins into subunits and partially hydrolyze the polypeptide chains. The reaction is terminated by acidifying to a pH of ca 4.5 to precipitate the modified protein, which is dried. The chemically modified isolates are made by proprietary processes. Isolates are employed primarily as adhesives for clays used in coating of paper and paper-board to render surfaces suitable for printing.

Food Products

Soybeans seeds are consumed as such or are processed into edible products. Small amounts of soybeans are roasted and salted for snacks. Nut substitutes for baked products and confections are also manufactured from soybeans. Larger amounts are used in Oriental foods, some of which are becoming increasingly popular in the United States.

Table 4. Proximate Compositions of Soybean Meals, wt %

Meal

Process

Dry Crude matter protein

Crude fat

Crude fiber

Ash

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