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"First number = mean rating; ratio = number in panel using that term. *DNP = dinitrophthalene.

"First number = mean rating; ratio = number in panel using that term. *DNP = dinitrophthalene.

Table 5. The General Foods Texture Profile System for Foods

Standardized rating scales for mechanical properties with generalized standards (intensity of parameter increases downward)

Hardness

Cream cheese Velveeta cheese Frankfurters Cheddar cheese Giant stuffed olives Cocktail peanuts Shelled almonds

Adhesiveness

Hydrogenated shortening Cheese Whiz Cream cheese Marshmallow topping Peanut butter

Fracturability

Corn muffin Egg Jumbos Graham crackers Melba toast Bordeaux cookies Ginger snaps Treacle brittle

Viscosity

Water Light cream Evaporated milk Maple syrup Chocolate syrup Cool'n Creamy pudding Condensed milk

Chewiness

Rye bread Frankfurter Large gumdrops Well-done round steak Nut chews Tootsie Rolls

Geometrical properties related to particle size and shape

Geometrical properties related to particle size and orientation

Property

Example

Property

Example

Powdery Confectioner's sugar

Chalky Tooth powder

Grainy Cooked Cream of

Wheat

Gritty Pears

Course Cooked oatmeal

Lumpy Cottage cheese

Beady Cooked tapioca

Flaky

Fibrous

Pulpy

Cellular

Aerated

Puffy

Crystalline

Flaky pastry Breast of chicken Orange sections Apples, cake Whipped cream Rice pudding Granulated sugar

New Product Development. Product developers searching for new creations use descriptive analysis to help them achieve their goal. For instance, in the creation of a new cola beverage, descriptive analysis may highlight specific flavor notes such as winy, pruny, etc, which differentiate one cola from another. Descriptive analysis can point out the need for the specific characteristic to be present. Descriptive analysis proves even more valuable when it shows the product developer that he has, indeed, incorporated the desired note into the product. In a parallel fashion, descriptive analysis proves useful when it shows that the new product possesses an undefined "off-note." Identifying and labeling that note helps the product developer to find the cause and remove the offending compound, flavor or process.

Relating Sensory Characteristics to Physical Measures.

Much scientific interest has focused on the relation between what we subjectively perceive and the objective physical (or chemical) properties of products. Chemists analyze the aroma of food products into hundreds of constituents by using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A trained panelist sniffing the "effluent" or separated chemicals at the exit port of the chromatograph (after the components have been separated) can describe what each component smells like. This dual analysis, combining objective and subjective measures, is often done by analytical chemists to characterize aromas.

Texture researchers correlate well defined physical characteristics that they measure instrumentally (eg, force applied, deformation obtained) with the sensory attributes. The "Instrumental Texture Profile" proposed by Bourne (19) as an extension of Szczesniak's subjective texture profile (12), exemplifies this subjective-objective type of correlation. Corresponding to each of Szczesniak's terms, Bourne recommends a well-defined instrumental measure. Szczesniak also has provided "Instrumental Analogs" of texture perceptions, using the General Foods Tex-turometer.

Quality Control (eg, plant to plant variation, modifications of an ingredient or a process by new suppliers or new machinery). Descriptive analysis develops a sensory "fingerprint" of the product, which can then be compared to standards on file. Often it is vital that descriptive analysis record the sensory characteristics of those products which defy description by chemical or physical analysis. It is difficult, if not impossible, to assess some products (eg, coffee), simply from the tracings of the gas chromatograph, (which records several hundred ingredient components in the product, each at its own concentration). Sensory analysis, using an experienced evaluator (in contrast to instrumental analysis) can more efficiently classify the sample as "same" or "different" from a "gold" standard reference. To the degree that quality assurance becomes increasingly important in the food industry we may expect to see increasing use of descriptive analysis to maintain sensory identity. The descriptive analysis report will be of the sort generated by the Flavor Profile technique, or the QDA technique, ie, designed to capture the sensory nuances of the particular product.

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