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Note: Wholesale prices for edible oils quoted by the Roman Chamber of Commerce on September 17,1998.

Note: Wholesale prices for edible oils quoted by the Roman Chamber of Commerce on September 17,1998.

These compounds are analyzed using gas chromatography (69-71).

Tocopherols. Seed oils tend to contain higher quantities of beta, gamma, and delta tocopherol (soybean oil) and gamma tocopherol (cottonseed oil) than olive oil. These compounds can be detected using HPLC (72).

Alkanes. Olive oil contains primarily alkanes with chain lengths of C23, C25, and C27, whereas other edible oils contain predominantly C27, C29, and C31 (73).

Aliphatic Alcohols. Olive oil contains lower levels of long chain alcohols and mono- and diunsaturated derivatives than does olive-pomace oil. This measurement could be used to assess contamination of virgin olive oil with low-grade olive oils (63,70).

Waxes. Extra virgin olive oil does not contain waxes; however, these are found in refined and olive-pomace oils. Therefore this determination could be used for detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive with olive-pomace oil (68,74,75).

Erythrodiol and Uvaol. Both erythrodiol and uvaol are increased in solvent-extracted olive oils (54); however, due to the variability of these compounds in olive oils obtained from different cultivars, these determinations are not commonly accepted as a measure to distinguish between pressed and solvent-extracted olive oils.

Stigmastadiene. Stigmasta-3,5-diene is formed by the removal of H20 from beta-sitosterol during the refinement of olive oil. The determination of stigmastadiene has been proposed to detect refined oils in crude olive oil (68).

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