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200-430 mg/16 (depends on type) 100-200 mg/16

200-430 mg/16 (depends on type) 100-200 mg/16

Heat, particularly moist heat, is the most reliable and most widely used method of destroying all forms of microbes (2). The efficacy of heat treatment with steam or hot water (80°C or above) depends on the temperature achieved and the time of exposure. Temperatures above 60°C progressively kill microbial cells. Vegetative cells may be killed or injured. Injured cells can recover in an appropriate environment, for example, in foods. Heat injury has been described in two ways: the extension of the lag phase of growth (18) and the inability to grow on selective media, for example, on salt-containing media for Staphylococcus aureus (19) or violet red bile agar for coliform bacteria (20). Because heat cannot be universally applied it is necessary to rely on chemical agents for sanitation programs.

Radiation is an alternative to gaseous disinfection. Gamma (cobalt-60) and electron-accelerated /?-ray (<10 MeV) irradiation have good penetrating ability and, therefore, have the potential for use not only in disinfection, but also in food processing. Ultraviolet radiation has a wavelength between 210 and 328 nm, with maximum antimicrobial activity between 240 and 280 nm. Ultraviolet radiation is low energy, so it does not penetrate foods. It is absorbed by glass and plastics, but it can be used for surface disinfection (2). Micrococcus radiodurans and bacterial and mold spores are highly resistant to ionizing and uv irradiation. The primary effect of radiation on living cells is by action on DNA. Radiation resistance is genetically determined. Sublethally damaged cells can recover by photoreactivation or by excision and recombination events, which give rise to mutations (2).

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