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Seed treatment

Figure 1. A value-added approach to utilization of fruit and vegetable processing wastes.

tries. Banana waste was a good substrate for «-amylase production by Bacillus subtilis under solid-state fermentation (108).

/?-Glucosidase (yS-D-glucoside glucohydrolase) can catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages in aryl and alkyl yS-D-glucosides as well as glycosides containing only carbohydrate residues (109,110), and it has been used to increase the concentration of aroma volatile compounds from wine and fruit juice through enzymatic hydrolysis of nonvolatile precursors (111,112). A recent study by Hang and Woodams (113) shows that apple pomace is a potential substrate for production of yS-glucosidase by solid-state fermentation, and the highest yield of900 units of the enzyme per kilogram of fermented apple pomace was obtained by using A. foetidus.

/?-Fructofuranosidase catalyzes the enzymatic hydrolysis of a fructofuranoside to an alcohol and D-fructose. This enzyme is used commercially in the conversion of sucrose to glucose and fructose and in the manufacture of chocolate-coated soft cream candies (114). Apple pomace was used as the substrate for /?-fructofuranosidase production by solid-state fermentation using Aspergillus species with the highest yield of 2700 units per kilogram of fermented apple pomace (115).

Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases) catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acid at an oil-water interface. This enzyme was produced by solidstate fermentation of olive cake and sugar cane bagasse (116).

A multienzyme complex containing pectinase, cellulase, and xylanase enzymes was produced by a coculture of six fungal isolates grown on orange peels as the sole carbon source (117). This multienzyme preparation also contains insignificant levels of amylase and lipase activities, suggesting potential uses in the extraction of the major components such as starches and lipids form plant materials (117). A cellulase-free xylanase was produced by solidstate fermentation from Thermomyces lanuginosus grown on corncobs (118).

A New Value-Added Approach to Utilization of Fruit and Vegetable Processing Wastes

Recently, Zheng and Shetty (119,120) proposed a novel strategy for better utilization of apple and cranberry processing wastes. In this process, a solid-state bioconversion of such wastes into various fungal bioinoculants, which have multiple applications in agricultural and environmental industries, was suggested. For example, Trichoderma inoculants produced from apple pomace significantly enhanced the seedling vigor of peas germinated in potting soil (Z. Zheng and K. Shetty, unpublished data, 1999). Commercial seed treatments are being viewed as a means to substantially increase the value of the seed and to improve plant growth and productivity. As a result of enhanced seedling vigor, the plant growth and productivity may be significantly improved. The seed vigor-enhancing compounds could also be extracted with water from fermented fruit pomace, and the residue remaining after extraction is being targeted for use as potting soil mix for several plant species. Therefore, the results of this research have showed value-added application potential for agricultural and environmental industries. A schematic diagram of the new value-added approach for utilization of food processing wastes is shown in Fig. 1.

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