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mixed, rich or lean formulation, liquid content, and sugar content. The shortening base is formulated and processed to obtain optimum emulsifier performance. Emulsifiers generally permit a richer, moister cake due to their capability to incorporate high levels of moisture in the batter (Table 7). The specialized mix shortenings contain even higher levels of emulsification and are used for consumer cake mixes, leaner snack-type cake applications, or cake products where long shelf life is required (39-41).

Similarly, emulsifier technology has allowed incorporation of high levels of moisture and air into the icing. The shortening must provide structure to allow the icing to hold this moisture and air as well as retain its shape. Processing of the shortening, particularly formulation and rotation, is critical to provide this structure. Generally, cooler votation conditions improve the icing's ability to aerate, as measured by specific gravity, and resistance to separation and slumping.

Different levels and types of emulsification are required for formulations with increased moisture and aeration requirements (Table 8). Flat or thick fudge icings require little, if any, aeration. However, butter cream and some decorator icings require some emulsification ability, usually accomplished with monoglycerides and diglycerides or low levels of polysorbates. Specialty icing products are formulated to produce fluffier and higher moisture-type icings. Polyglycerol esters or combinations of monoglyceride and diglyceride, poylsorbate emulsifier systems are used. As the level of emulsification increases, the structure provided by the shortening becomes more critical to icing performance.

Breads and Rolls

Shortening is added at relatively low levels to breads for lubricity, softening, and shelf life. Structure is primarily obtained from starch and protein complexes. Emulsifiers are employed as dough conditioners to resist staling (drying) (Table 9). These may be added either as part of the shortening or hydrated first by heating in water until a liquid crystalline phase (mesophase) is formed and maintained by cooling the mixture. Biscuit shortenings are formulated to blend as small, discrete chunks into the cold dough, yet still provide sufficient solids for a flaky, tender texture.

Pie Crust Shortening

Pie shortenings are also mixed loosely into the cold dough to maintain separate fat layers for a flaky crust. Overmix-ing, or mixing too warm, incorporates the shortening in timately, which reduces flakiness, increases toughness, and increases shrinkage. The shortening system contains a loosely bound oil fraction to provide lubricity and tenderness to the crust.

Lard is the classic choice for pie shortening due to its solids content, plasticity at cool temperatures, and crystal structure. Vegetable shortenings have been formulated to provide similar functional properties with an improved nutritional (cholesterol and saturates) profile.

Puff Pastry and Danish Shortening

Puff pastry and Danish shortenings are referred to as rollin products because they are formed from a laminated dough sheet, consisting of alternating layers of dough and shortening, that is traditionally formed by rolling the coated dough sheet and folding it to form layers.

Danish has a higher fat content than puff pastry, and softer-consistency products are used to achieve lubricity. Long refrigerated retarding (dough-relaxing) steps are used between folds to minimize toughness and maximize lubricity while maintaining structural integrity of the fat film. Puff pastry shortening contains higher solids for flakiness due to the lower fat content used. This shortening must be carefully formulated and processed so it remains workable, not stiff, to properly apply to the dough sheet. Dough and shortening temperature are critical. Puff pastry has larger expansion because of the number of layers and the water vapor sealed by the shortening between the dough layers.

Butter was originally used for these applications. Puff pastry and Danish are formulated to have similar composition (fat, moisture, and salt) and functionality and may be butter flavored as well.

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