Info

Total

Metric tons

Thousand dollars

Other shellfish

52,174

65,386

Total shellfish

585,643

1,504,553

Grand total, 1988

4,974,828

4,010,068

Note: Landings are in round (live) weight for all items, except clams, oysters, and scallops, which are reported in weight of meat.

Note: Landings are in round (live) weight for all items, except clams, oysters, and scallops, which are reported in weight of meat.

systems, modern commercial fishing methods use either static gear or moving gear when a vessel is used for towing or dragging. There are three basic types of static gear used in the commercial fisheries. The hook-and-line technique is familiar to all sports fishermen. The fish is attracted to the hook by an edible bait or by an attractive device such as a feather. As the fish tries to take the food from the bait or attacks the lure, it becomes attached to the barbed hook and cannot shake the hook from its mouth. A technique called long-lining is the major commercial use of hook-and-line fishing. A series of baited hooks are suspended from a buoyed horizontal line. This use of multiple hooks greatly increases the chances of catching fish and makes the fishing a viable commercial venture.

There are two basic types of trap used to catch fish and shellfish. One is an enclosure placed in the pathway of a moving or migrating animal while the other is a container or pot in which bait is placed. An animal crawls or swims into the tunnel entrance and then cannot escape because it is unable to find its way out of the narrow opening. Traps usually have a one-way wire door that can be easily pushed aside to enter but prevents regression.

Static nets, called gill nets, are a form of static gear closely related to traps. Nets are suspended from a few fathoms up to 50 fathoms into the water from a buoyed line. They are placed in the water where fish are known to be passing. The moving fish hits and penetrates the net. As it realizes that it has hit an obstruction, it tries to pull back. This causes its gills to become entangled in the webbing where the fish is securely held until the fishermen pull the net to the surface. Figures 2-7 show the types of static gear described above (5).

Towed or Dragged Gear. It is often necessary to sweep large areas of the ocean to catch sufficient volumes of fish or shellfish. This is done by trawling, in which large nets are towed through the water, or dredging, in which gear is towed along the bottom.

A trawl net is constructed like a large net bag that has a restricted end called the cod end. As a fishing vessel pulls the funnellike nets, fish are swept into the nets and collected in the bottom or cod end. The vessel must travel at sufficient speed to insure that the fish being collected into the net cannot swim out of the opening. The goal of a trawl operation, lasting from less than an hour to several hours is to fill the cod end. A typical trawl net and a dredge are shown in Figures 8-10 (5).

Encircling Gear. Encircling gear is used for catching large amounts of fish that are schooled or densely concentrated. One end of the net, called a seine net is pulled from the fishing vessel and completes the operation by encir-

Table 4. U.S. Private Aquaculture Production and Value

Species

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Homemade Pet Food Secrets

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