Source: Ref. 7.

surface. The equation for converting dielectric property data into penetration depth (d.) is d = 1/2«

for lie, and for half-power depth it is d = 1/2.886«

where « is the attenuation constant, which is calculated as:

Thus the main difference between microwave heating and other heating methods is that microwave energy penetrates deeply into food materials and is converted to heat as it penetrates. The temperature profile shown in Figure 1 illustrates the effect of microwave heating on a large food mass and the effect of time after the energy is no longer being applied. It is clear in this case that conduction heating will always play a role in any microwave heating process where a temperature gradient exists.

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