Source: Adapted from Ref. 8.

Source: Adapted from Ref. 8.

F friction work, J/kg or Btu/lb.

H enthalpy of product, kJ/kg or Btu/lb.

KE kinetic energy, J/kg or Btu/lb.

PE potential energy, J/kg or Btu/lb.

Q quantity of heat transferred, J/kg or Btu/lb.

E internal energy, J/kg or Btu/lb.

v volume, m or ft or specific volume/unit mass, m/kg or ft/lb.

A change in a property (eg, temperature, enthalpy). BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. J. J. Martin, Thermodynamics Program, A.I.Ch.E. Teaching Aids, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, 1965.

2. E. L. Watson and J. C. Harper, Elements of Food Engineering, Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York, 1986.

3. D. R. Heldman, Food Process Engineering, AVI Publishing Company, Inc., Westport, Conn., 1977.

4. G. M. Pigott, compilation of classroom lecture notes and unit operations laboratory experiments over 28 years of teaching Food Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, 1989.

5. F. Franks, ed., Water—A Comprehensive Treatise, 6 vols., Plenum Press, New York, 1972-1979.

6. R. C. Weast and M. J. Astle, eds., CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1981.

7. J. A. Duffle and W. A. Beckman, Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1980.

8. J. H. Keenan, F. G. Keyes, P. G. Hill, and J. G. Moore, Steam Tables, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1969; Reprinted in G. J. Van Wylen and R. E. Sonntag, Fundamentals of Classical Thermodynamics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1978.

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